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Full text of "Libbey glass: a tradition of 150 years, 1818-1968"

LIBBEY 

GLASS 

a tradition 

of 

150 

years 



The Toledo Museum of Art 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Toledo Museum of Art 



http://archive.org/details/libbeyglasstradiOOtole 



LIBBEY 

GLASS 

a tradition 

of 

150 

years 1818-1968 



The Toledo Museum of Art 



The Toledo Museum of Art 



OFFICERS 

Harold Boeschenstein, President 

J. P. Levis, Vice-President 

Blake-More Godwin, Vice-President 

George P. MacNichol, Jr., Vice-President 

William C. Draper, Secretary-Treasurer 

Otto Wittmann, Director 

TRUSTEES 

Harry E. Collin, President Emeritus 

John D. Biggers 

Harold Boeschenstein 

Samuel G. Carson 

F. Earle Cazayoux 

Curtis W. Davis 

John K. Davis 

William C. Draper 

Blake-More Godwin 

Richard R. Johnston 

Jerome F. Kapp 

Edward F. Knight 

J. P. Levis 

Jules D. Lippmann 

George P. MacNichol, Jr. 

Harris Mcintosh 

Charles L. McKelvy, Jr. 

Raymon H. Mulford 



Mrs. Peter R. Orser 
David R. Rittenhouse 
John W. Snyder 
Duane Stranahan, Jr. 
Robert A. Stranahan, Jr. 
Otto Wittmann 

HONORARY TRUSTEES 

The Most Rev. Karl J. Alter 
Ward M. Canaday 
Howard P. DeVilbiss 
LeRoy E. Eastman 
James P. Falvey 
George M. Jones, Jr. 
Edgar F. Kaiser 
Frank L. Kloeb 
Milton Knight 
William W. Knight 
Marvin S. Kobacker 
Robert G. Landers 
Mrs. William E. Levis 
John E. Martin 
Carroll L. Proctor 
Roy Rike 
George W. Ritter 
Ford R. Weber 



COVER: Libbey Glass Manufactory at the World's 
Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. 
Lithograph after a watercolor by the architect 
D. L. Stine. 



Copyright by the Toledo Museum of Art, 1968, 
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 68-23391. 



Foreword 



It is appropriate that this Museum should join with Owens-Illinois, Incorporated, to ob- 
serve the 150th anniversary of Libbey Glass. The histories of the Museum and 
the glass industry of Toledo have been closely related since the founding of the Museum by 
Edward Drummond Libbey in 1901. 

Edward Drummond Libbey founded the Museum and guided its development as well 
as the progress of the glass industry. So close was the connection between the Museum and 
his business interests that Mr. Libbey frequently combined business travel with the acquisi- 
tion of new objects for the Museum. 

The history of the Libbey Glass Company and of its predecessor, the New England Glass 
Company, is a long and distinguished one. The company is the only American glassworks 
which can claim one hundred and fifty years of continuous production. 

The New England Glass Company moved to Toledo in 1888 from East Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts, and shortly thereafter changed its name to the Libbey Glass Company. The New 
England Glass Company was a leader among the many tableware glass companies of the 
19th century, and Edward Drummond Libbey was resolved to maintain this same high level 
of quality in the wares produced by the new successor company. Not only did the new com- 
pany achieve this goal, but it also set many unexcelled standards for the American glass in- 
dustry in the late years of the century. Indeed, Libbey glass, in both cut and art glass, be- 
came the standard of the world for many years. 

In 1963, the Museum presented an exhibition of the seventy year (1818-1888) produc- 
tion of the New England Glass Company. This was the first major exhibition devoted to the 
glass of this factory. Since the present exhibition marks the 150th anniversary of the com- 
pany, objects from 1818-1888 will be included, but the present publication is intended to 
serve as a companion volume to the 1963 catalogue and emphasizes the history of the Lib- 
bey Company from its establishment in Toledo in 1888 until the present day. Much of the 
later history of the company is not widely known and many pieces of glass from the com- 
pany's later 20th century production have not been previously seen in an historical per- 
spective. The research of others who have studied the later years of American glass pro- 
duction has been carefully reviewed and their findings incorporated where relevant. This 
catalogue and the 1963 volume dealing with the New England Glass Company will provide the 
scholar and collector of American glass with a history of one of this country's most distin- 
guished glass companies. 

We are indebted to the generous owners and to our colleagues in other American mu- 
seums for the opportunity to borrow their rare and beautiful glass for this exhibition. 

John Webster Keefe, Assistant Curator at this Museum, is responsible for this cata- 
logue and the research and organization which has made it possible. To him and to the other 
members of our staff who have shared in the work of the exhibition goes credit for this 
contribution to the history of American glass. 

Otto Wittmann, Director 
March 1968 



Acknowledgments 
and Lenders 



An exhibition of this kind is impossible without the cooperation of many private individ- 
uals, collectors, and public museums. All of those persons with whom I have had con- 
tact in the course of the preparation of the exhibition have given generously of their time, 
objects, and information. To them, we are deeply grateful. 

Special thanks should go to Mr. Carl U. Fauster of the Libbey Products Division of 
Owens-Illinois, Incorporated, for his invaluable information on the history of the company and 
for the use of important archival materials. Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones of Boston and Mr. 
Lowell Innes of Saco, Maine, have been more than generous in their advice and contributions 
of time. I am further grateful to Miss Jeanne Chilman, a University of Michigan intern at the 
Museum, for her work on the Libbey cut glass of the Brilliant Period in the collections of this 
institution. To these individuals the Museum and I are particularly indebted. 

The Museum is grateful to the following collectors and institutions for objects lent 
to the exhibition: 

The Bennington Museum, Bennington, Vermont; Mr. Harry J. Durholt, Toledo; Mr. & 
Mrs. Carl U. Fauster, Toledo; The Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan; Mr. Lowell 
Innes, Saco, Maine; Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones, Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts; Mrs. Carl R. 
Megowen, Toledo; The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts; Owens-Illinois, In- 
corporated, Toledo; Miss Marion H. Pike, Cambridge, Massachusetts; The Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Washington, D. C; Mr. John L. Vaupel, John L. Vaupel, Jr., Belmont, Massachu- 
setts; Mr. & Mrs. Milton Zink, Toledo. 

John Webster Keefe 

Assistant Curator 
March 1968 




*-&&* 



PLANT OF THE NEW ENGLAND GLASS COMPANY, EAST CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



History of the New 

England and 

Libbey Glass 

Companies 

1818-1968 



1818-1888 



The establishment of the New England Glass Company in 1818 can be fully under- 
stood only by going back to the late 18th century and the founding of the Boston Crown 
Glass Company in South Boston. This factory was chartered to produce crown or window 
glass and is said to have introduced the use of lead glass to the North Atlantic states. Al- 
though the firm continued production, in 1814 several of its workers incorporated the Boston 
Porcelain and Glass Company whose factory began production in 1815 and produced fine 
glass instead of the relatively crude crown glass. The venture was not a success, however, 
and the factory ceased operation by 1817. 

In November of 1817, the grounds and buildings of the Boston Porcelain and Glass 
Company were sold at auction to a group of men including Amos Binney, Daniel Hastings, 
Edmund Monroe, and Deming Jarves. Four months later, on February 16, 1818, a company 
known as the New England Glass Company was incorporated and occupied this site. 

The most famous of these men was Deming Jarves, a prosperous Boston businessman 
who held an American monopoly on the production of red lead needed in the making of fine 
tablewares. The importance of the Jarves monopoly cannot be underemphasized, for it per- 
mitted the New England Glass Company to compete successfully with foreign glasshouses who 
had before used the lead market solely for their own production. Jarves was also the first 
agent, or general manager, of the New England Glass Company, although he left the works 
in 1826 to become the founder of the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company. In the new com- 
pany, Jarves was an experimenter in pressed glass, coloring of glass, and new methods of 
manufacture. In 1854, he was also the author of a valuable pamphlet and document, Remi- 
niscences of Glassmaking. Jarves was succeeded at the New England Glass Company by 
four agents, the last of whom was William L. Libbey who served from 1870-1883. William 
Libbey had previously owned the Mount Washington Glassworks in South Boston. He sold 
his interest in this firm when he became agent for the New England Glass Company. Libbey 
died in 1883 and his son, Edward Drummond Libbey, headed the company for five years. 

The early years of the company were marked by great prosperity due to successful 
management and high standards which produced glass equal in quality if not better than 
much European glass. By 1818 there were about forty glasshouses in operation in this 
country but most of these produced crown window glass, although this was to change as the 
century progressed. However, most of these glasshouses were small establishments com- 
pared to the New England which employed about 500 men and boys by 1865. With this com- 
paratively great size, the New England soon developed specialized departments of cutting, 
engraving, gilding, pressing and enamelling. It depended upon very few outside manufac- 
turers. 

Almost all of the articles made by the company were of fine flint or lead glass, but 
the development of less costly soda-lime glass in West Virginia during the Civil War (1864) 
was to end this period of prosperity. Ironically, this development was created by the ex- 

8 



periments of William Leighton, one of the sons of Thomas Leighton, a distinguished early 
New England Glass Company superintendent. In order to meet competition, most of the 
glasshouses switched to the production of this cheaper type of glass. The New England 
Glass Company and the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company refused to lower the stand- 
ards of their metal, although the latter was forced to give up the production of only fine lead 
glass in the late 1870's. 

When William L. Libbey came to the company as agent in 1870, the days of prosper- 
ity had ended, but Libbey refused to lower the quality of the glass. The depression in 1873 
did little to help the waning fortunes of the company. By 1874, less than half the workers 
who had been employed in 1865 remained at the East Cambridge factory In the spring of 
1874, the stockholders met and voted to close the company, but Libbey persuaded them to 
accept further economies, and operations continued for a few more years. 

By 1877, the company was still making fine lead glass but was not showing a profit. 
The directors of the company withdrew from active management of the property and leased 
them the following year to Libbey. The company operated for two years under its former 
name, and, in 1880, the firm name was officially changed to the New England Glass Com- 
pany, W. L. Libbey and Son, Proprietors. 

Although the works did not operate at full capacity, the company continued its emphasis 
upon the manufacture of fine lead glass. William Libbey had refused to lower the quality 
of his metal while the public taste was far more interested in the decoration and novel forms 
produced in the cheaper soda-lime glass. Inevitably, the result was a futile struggle against 
financial losses. 

Edward Drummond Libbey had worked at the plant as a chore boy in 1872 after refusing 
to enroll at Harvard. His reasons for this adamant refusal were his ambitions to start a 
career. His father allowed him to work at the factory in this menial position, apparently 
in the hope that it would force the boy to start his college studies. Young Libbey did de- 
cide to take up studies, but planned to devote his life to the Methodist ministry. For this 
purpose, he enrolled at the Kent Hill Academy in Maine. While there, he contracted a throat 
infection which permanently impaired his voice; the rector of the school urged Libbey to 
withdraw from the school since he would never be able to speak publicly. 

To the future advancement of the American glass industry, Libbey returned to the fail- 
ing New England Glass Company as a clerk in 1874. There the young man observed the 
financial troubles of the distinguished company. In 1880, Edward became his father's part- 
ner, as the change in name indicated. 

William Libbey died in 1883, leaving Edward in control of the company. The factory 
operated for five more years against increasing losses caused by labor troubles and fuel 
shortages. 

In the Pittsburgh area, coal had provided a cheaper furnace fuel since the late 1850's. 
Libbey had looked for a favorable new location in western Pennsylvania or the Midwest 
since that time. Because of the dwindling supply of wood for fuel, the New England Glass 
Company had switched from wood to coal, but even this was prohibitively expensive since 



coal had to be shipped from a great distance to East Cambridge. When word of the new Mid- 
western natural gas fields arrived, Edward Drummond Libbey carefully inspected the north- 
western Ohio area for a new factory site. The chronic fuel problem, coupled with a prolonged 
strike over wages, forced Libbey to close the Lech mere Point factory and move to Toledo, Ohio 
in 1888. That year marked the end of production of one of the 19th century America's 
most important and significant glasshouses. 

The prestige of the New England Glass Company had continued in spite of its financial dif- 
ficulties, and the city of Toledo was anxious to have the company established there. Accord- 
ingly, generous offers were made, and Libbey decided to bring his business to Ohio. 

After the initial arrangements had been completed, Libbey returned to East Cambridge 
and prepared to bring the company to the Midwest. Libbey, his executives, and over one 
hundred loyal workers arrived in Toledo on August 17, 1888. The entire city welcomed the 
new industry with a parade to the new factory on Ash Street and prepared an open air ban- 
quet. 



10 



1888- 1968 



In spite of this auspicious beginning, however, the company did not immediately prosper. 
The move and the re-establishing of a physical plant had cost more money than there was 
available. Edward Libbey was forced into debt, even to the extreme measure of borrowing 
on the life insurance policies left to his sisters by his father. Later, as the factory went into 
production, there were troubles with the regulation of the new gas fuel, so that much of the 
glass initially produced was inferior in quality. Many of the transplanted workers become 
homesick and discouraged and returned to New England. 

The company at first continued the use of the New England Glass Company name, 
W. L. Libbey and Son, Proprietors, but on April 14, 1888, the firm was incorporated under 
Ohio law as the W. L. Libbey and Son Company, New England Glassworks. In 1890, the 
New England Glass Company surrendered its charter but it was not until February 3, 1892, 
that the company became officially known as the Libbey Glass Company. Although the New 
England Glass Company no longer existed, the old buildings on Lechmere Point, East Cam- 
bridge, were sold in 1894 to a trolley car company and not demolished for some years. 
The great chimney, a Boston landmark, was not razed until 1921. 

With the shortage of personnel caused by the return of many workers to Boston and 
Cambridge, Libbey was forced to travel to other glass centers to recruit replacements. On 
an early trip to Wheeling, West Virginia, Edward Drummond Libbey met Michael J. Owens 
(1859-1923) and hired him. The two men were eventually to contribute greatly to the ad- 
vancement of the industry. In 1889, Owens was appointed superintendent of the struggling 
new factory, and his strict but well-executed disciplines stimulated morale and enthusiasm 
for the new venture. 

In 1890, a turn of events assured the future of the Libbey Glass Company. The Corning 
Glass Works of Corning, New York, had contracted to make lightbulbs for the General Electric 
Company but was crippled by a long strike. The Libbey Glass Company had been making 
light bulbs for independent companies until this time, but it took over the contract and leased 
an idle glass factory in Findlay in 1891 to accommodate the new production. By the summer 
of 1891, the company was showing a margin of profit, and this figure increased later in the 
year. 

It was in this context that the inventive genius of Mike Owens appeared, and he began 
to develop a machine for producing the bulbs mechanically. This was eventually perfected, 
and Owens turned his talent to a machine for making tumblers; this was put into operation 
in 1895. This led to a device, operating on a similar principle, which produced lamp 
chimneys. Owens' next project was his most significant, and that was the perfection of an 
automatic bottlemaking machine. This machine opened up vast new markets and led to the 
formation of a separate company, the Owens Bottle Company, which was to merge in 1929 
with the Illinois Glass Company whose factory had been equipped with the famous Owens 
bottle machine. This new company was known as the Owens-Illinois Glass Company. 

11 



The profits from the manufacture of lightbulbs continued and Libbey began the con- 
struction of a furnace in the Toledo factory which would allow them to be made within the 
city. However, Libbey wished to take up full production of the fine lead glass to which his 
father had been dedicated. The new Toledo factory was still not receiving sufficient orders 
for its finer lead glasswares. 

At the board of directors meeting in February of 1892, Libbey proposed his audacious 
scheme of a glass factory exhibit at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The Exposition 
was scheduled to open on May 1, 1893. Libbey's directors had just begun to enjoy the new 
profits of the company and were appalled at this suggestion, which would take more money 
than there was available. Libbey, however, was convinced that the company could grow only 
by this bold experiment and finally persuaded the directors to give their consent. The other 
officers of the company, all of whom were friends of Edward Libbey, tried in vain to dissuade 
him from incurring this large and seemingly unnecessary expense. The money for the fair 
building was raised by borrowing, much of it on Libbey's personal credit. The Toledo archi- 
tect, D. L. Stine, was commissioned to design an imposing pavilion and Libbey organized the 
Libbey Glass Company of Illinois. Letters were written to the fair directors requesting the 
glassmaking concession. 

The idea of a display at the Exposition was a daring one, given the funds which the com- 
pany then had to spend for such advertising. However, the idea was not a totally original one. 
The makers of fine lead glass had realized that only a massive publicity campaign could 
shore up the failing market as early as 1876. In this year, all of the important American 
manufacturers of fine glass sponsored elaborate exhibits at the Centennial Exposition in 
Philadelphia. One of these companies, Gillinder and Sons of Philadelphia, set up a glass 
factory on the grounds of the fair and sold over $96,000 worth of glass souvenirs to visitors. 
The display was monetarily profitable and created favorable publicity for the cut glasswares. 

Edward Drummond Libbey was a great showman, but he was also a shrewd businessman. 
Therefore, it is likely that the success of the Gillinder firm at the Centennial Exposition was 
carefully studied before any proposal for a similar 1893 experiment was made. 

The Libbey pavilion was designed to look like a palace and was prominently situated 
on the Midway Plaisance. Two towers flanked the entrance and behind these rose a large 
central dome one hundred feet in height which served as a smokestack for the furnaces. 
The building was 200 feet long and 150 feet wide. Visitors could walk through the pavilion 
and observe all aspects of the glass-making process. The central attraction of the building 
was the "Crystal Art Room" which had numerous shelves of cut glass articles on display as 
well as spun glass decorating items such as ceiling coverings, tapestries, and firescreens. 
All of these glittering objects were reflected in the great mirrors which lined the walls. 

Each of the 2 million visitors to the pavilion was given a small spun glass bow on a stick- 
pin as a souvenir and there were numerous inexpensive souvenir items on sale as well as the 
costly deeply cut pieces of glass. The exhibit attracted much favorable attention for the 
Libbey Glass Company and brought its wares directly before the public. The Libbey display at 
the Fair attracted further attention during the visit of the Infanta Eulalia of Spain to the 
pavilion. The princess was attending the Fair as the official representative of the Spanish 

12 



government and inspected the Libbey exhibits in June of 1893. The attention of the distin- 
guished visitor was directed particularly to a spun glass dress made for a popular actress of 
the day, Georgia Cayvan. Princess Eulalia acquired a dress for herself shortly thereafter and 
appointed the Libbey Glass Company as "Glass Cutters to Her Royal Highness Infanta Dona 
Eulalia of Spain". The famous glass dress was considered a great technological advance as 
well as a publicity device, for it involved the weaving of glass fibers on a silk warp. So suc- 
cessful were the exhibits that by the end of 1893, Edward Drummond Libbey was able to place 
his fine cut glass in such prestigious stores as Black, Starr and Frost and Tiffany's in New 
York and as distant as James and Skinner and Company in Vancouver, British Columbia. 

The popularity of this rich cut glassware continued throughout the "Brilliant Period" or 
until about 1915. A wide market for glass of this type continued, however, until 1925. Cut 
glass had always been a symbol of elegance, and in the Brilliant Period, it came to reflect 
social prestige. The new prosperity of the country created a market for fine tableware, and 
cut glass was admirably suited to elaborate and formal entertaining. 

When the public taste tired of this cut and engraved glass, the company began a fine 
line in the contemporary taste which lasted through the 1930's. In 1940, the Libbey Glass 
Company revived its fine glassware production with a line of heavy crystal. However, the 
advent of World War II and conversion to the war effort necessitated the termination of this 
glass. 

Cut and engraved glass has always been costly. Its production depended upon lower 
manufacturing costs which marked the Brilliant Period and a widespread buying public. As 
the 20th century progressed, the costs of producing cut glass soared and the public taste 
gradually turned to other less elaborate wares. The trend to more informal living made 
the hand-finished glass table settings seem ponderous, difficult to care for, and far too cost- 
ly. Such glass is today so expensive to produce so that it is unlikely that it will ever again 
become commercially available. 

In 1936, the Libbey firm was transferred to the Owens-Illinois Glass Company which con- 
tinued to operate the Ash Street plant as its Libbey Division. The company has a most dis- 
tinguished background of glassmaking tradition and continues to make glass which reflects 
the tastes and needs of the American public. It is indeed a remarkable record of continuity 
which has enabled the company to celebrate its 150th anniversary this year. 



13 



The Llbbey Glass Company, Toledo, 1888. 




Chronology of American Glass 



Research in recent years has produced a generally accepted system of dates for the 
manufacture of American glass. These dates can only be accepted as outlines, for the styles 
involved always carried past influences with them as well as experimental and forward-looking 
aspects. The collector or scholar should therefore consider the following dates as ap- 
proximate. 



The Early American Period, 1771-1830 



Production of Early American glasshouses was limited and frequently unprofitable due to 
flooding of the American market by European glass. The United States at this point had 
no port duties or tariffs, and foreign manufacturers monopolized the American market. The 
most famous of these early glass makers was probably the Manheim Glass Works of Henry 
William Stiegel in Pennsylvania. 

The Early American period is considered to end in 1830 with the passage of the Bald- 
win Bill which called for the collection of port duties and a high tariff which severely 
limited imports. 



The Middle Period, 1830-1880 



American glasshouses prospered as never before during this period because of the new 
protective tariffs. Engraved glass, fine line cutware, and colored, cased and flashed glass 
were characteristic products of this period. Flute cutting is also particularly associated with 
these years. In these decades, the New England Glass Company firmly established its repu- 
tation as a maker of fine cut lead glass. 

During the Middle Period, pressed glass became popular and threatened to take over 
the market for the more expensive cut and engraved wares. However, this facet of the indus- 
try was saved in 1865 by the need for cut lamp shades and chimneys. 



The Brilliant Period, 1880-1915 



Establishing specific dates for this period is particularly difficult since the Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia of 1876 really marked the beginning of the deeply cut ware which 
is associated with the Brilliant Period. The market for this ornate tableware was waning by 
1916 although many fine cut and engraved pieces were made through 1925. Some glass 
authorities therefore extend the date of the Brilliant Period through 1925. 

Glass of the Brilliant Period is of heavy metal with great sparkle and deep cutting. 
Favorite motifs employed by Libbey were the hob-star, rosette, and pinwheel. After the turn 
of the century, the designs of the cutting tend to increasing elaboration and a subjugation 
of form to the ornament. 



15 



The Modern American Period, 1925-1945 

Scholars have as yet given little consideration to the period from 1925-1945. This cata- 
logue emphasizes particularly, for the first time, the glass of this period, and we have desig- 
nated it the Modern American Period, a name given to a late Libbey series. 

Glass of this period includes the copper-wheel engraved pieces popular in the 1920's 
and decorated with stylized naturalistic motifs. It also includes the beautiful glass of the 
1930's which is characterized by suave, elegant shapes and interest in surface texture. The 
glass at the end of the Modern American period tends to be heavy and with great snap since 
the ingredients are chemically pure and are perfectly controlled mechanically in their com- 
bination. Unlike the heavy pieces of the Brilliant Period, however, the beauty of these late 
examples depends upon the shape of the article itself rather than upon decorative surface 
detail. 

Some copper-wheel engraving is done in these years, but it tends to be very chaste in 
design and draws upon contemporary subjects rather than historical or mythological ones. 

Techniques of American Glass 

Free Blown Glass 

The first thirty-five years of the New England Glass Company were devoted to the 
fashioning of free blown ware, and upon these beautiful examples of early 19th century 
glass rests the fame of the company. 

Free blown glass of this early period relied heavily upon the neoclassic designs em- 
ployed in the contemporary English and Irish factories. Many of these designs were inspired 
by the silver hollow ware of the late 18th century. Typical pieces were helmet-shaped pitchers 
and mugs on knopped stems, which were frequently decorated by fluting, shallow engraving, 
and the popular gadroon. This Anglo-Irish stylistic tradition was the chief source of design 
for free blown ware until about 1845 or 1850, when the Bohemian style opened the way for 
color and more typically Victorian embellishments. 

These free blown pieces are usually made of clear lead glass and are noticeably heavier 
than those made by glasshouses such as the South Boston works. However, the company did 
make a deep blue glass until about 1830, and amethyst and a deep red were available 
later. With the Bohemian style, this ruby and clear glass were frequently used together. 
Later in the century, around 1860, opal glass became popular. 

Latticinio glass became popular in the 1860's. This was created by the use of opaque 
white threads in patterns of parallel and intersecting lines. This glass usually used the white 
threads over clear, but rare pieces were made with the threads over blue of a cobalt shade. 

16 



As the century progressed, colored glass was made in greater quantity. This glass was 
generally decorated by an additional process; this was in marked contrast to the earlier clear 
free blown ware which was either plain or decorated with clear threading and simple applied 
patterns. The expanding Victorian market demanded new effects and colors, which the com- 
pany was obliged to supply. These later free blown pieces, however, often lacked the 
direct and unpretentious beauty of the earlier examples. 



Mold Blown Glass 



It is known that Deming Jarves, one of the founders of the New England Glass Com- 
pany, was much interested in the fashioning of glass in molds. This is corroborated by 
the fact that the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company, founded by Jarves after he left the 
New England Glass factory, is credited with the production of so much mold blown glass. 

The company used a variety of techniques in the making of its molded glass; these 
techniques depended upon the type of mold. Those in the most common use were the pat- 
tern mold, the hinge mold, and the full size piece mold. 

The New England Glass Company produced blown molded glass from 1819 until 1888. 
However, the collector and student of American glass should realize that the company was 
never a leading producer of blown mold pieces. The molded glass made by the company was 
probably intended as a less expensive interpretation of European cut glass. The production of 
these pieces by the New England Glass Company centered upon salts, simply designed bowls 
or dishes, and tumblers. 



Pressed Glass 

The manufacture of pressed glass by the New England Glass Company is again largely 
a result of the interest of its first agent, Deming Jarves, in new methods of producing glass 
which would allow the company to compete with the European market. 

Pressed glass was made throughout the seventy year history of the company, but its 
production may be quite accurately divided into two periods. Between 1825 and 1850, the 
company produced the stippled ware know as lacy glass. All too frequently, this glass is 
attributed to the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company although it is known today that the 
New England Glass Company operated its own mold-making division and employed de- 
signers for the intricate patterns. From around 1850 until its closing in 1888, the company 
produced pattern glass, the popular pressed glass of the 19th century. Designs were widely 
pirated, but the distinctive feature of this late pressed glass of the East Cambridge factory 
was that it continued to use lead metal in spite of an overwhelming competition from 
those glasshouses using the cheaper soda-lime glass. It should also be a noted that the 

17 



pressed items produced by the company, even in this late period, were further character- 
ized by simple solid designs, in contrast to the whimsical and frequently tasteless quality 
of much Victorian pattern glass. 

Advances in the refining of lamp fuel during the 19th century created a wide market 
for lamps with closed reservoirs. The New England Glass Company was a major producer 
of such lamps. The lamps came from the factory in such a variety of designs and decoration 
that they constitute a complete category of study by themselves. 

The early lamps frequently used cup-plates as component parts of their design; the 
plate was inverted and so formed the base for a font. Later lamps combined pressed bases 
with free blown fonts and shades; these lamps were produced until the 1850's. 

By 1865, kerosene had become the most widely used lighting fuel, and new lamps were 
designed to accommodate it. Kerosene lamps have large bowl-like fonts which are set upon 
rather tall columnar stems. These fonts and stems are frequently cut and engraved. The 
fashion for pressed kerosene lamps passed in the late 1870's when lamps decorated with 
overall brilliant cutting became the fashion. 



Cut and Engraved Glass 



The cut and engraved glass produced by the New England Glass Company and its suc- 
cessor, the Libbey Glass Company, can easily be divided into two distinct categories. The 
New England Glass Company production of such wares extended from the last years of the 
Early American Period (1771-1830) to the late years of the Middle Period (1830-1880). 
The Libbey Company was one of the great Brilliant Period (ca. 1880-1915) producers of 
glass. 

Glass of the earlier periods used cutting and engraving as decoration subordinate to 
the design and outline of the particular piece. The Bohemian style with its occasional deep 
cutting and faceting was the only exception to this definition. Favorite motifs in this early 
period were flutes, faceted stems, panels, grapes and leaves, fruits, urns, hunting scenes or 
the perennially popular "Strawberry Diamond". After 1880, however, the form of the object 
was given a secondary role and the entire piece was covered by a wealth of deep cut facets, 
scallopings, and rosettes. The later designers were concerned with a highly ornamented 
sparkling surface which created a direct and opulent impression. 

By 1885, the New England Glass Company employed over ninety men as cutters. These 
men produced cut and engraved work in clear as well as colored glass. Cut and engraved 
glass was an important product of the company, but it was destined to become even more 
so as the century progressed. 

In the development of any company certain names became linked with its history. One of 
the most important names in the New England Glass Company's development was that of 



18 



Thomas Leighton (1780-1849). An Englishman, Leighton came to this country in 1826 and 
became a superintendent of the company, where he remained until his death in 1849. 
Thomas Leighton had seven sons, of whom six remained in the employ of the company and 
contributed significantly to its history. In 1848 one son discovered that gold added to clear 
glass produced a ruby color. A grandson of Thomas, Henry Leighton, (ca. 1840-1880) be- 
came an expert engraver. Henry Leighton produced tumblers, decanters, spoonholders, 
and toilet bottles decorated with beautiful engraving and spirited detail. 

Colored cut and engraved glass is essentially a product of the Middle Period (1830- 
1880), but the New England Glass Company had made red wine glasses prior to 1830. These 
pieces are significant in the history of the company chiefly because they show the use of 
etching during the preceding period. The colored cut and engraved glass of the Middle 
Period was of four types: one color throughout, two or more colors cased together; one 
color flashed with another, and glass of one color with a lustre stain, which is the least de- 
sirable. All four of these types of cut and engraved glass were produced by the New England 
Glass Company. 

Another of the New England Glass Company's most skilled engravers was Louis Vaupel, 
(ca. 1812-1903) who came to the company in 1856. Vaupel had been trained in Europe and 
worked in the old Bohemian style. Vaupel usually worked in cased glass with sapphire blue, 
green, or red over clear. His highly detailed engravings of landscapes and naturalistic mo- 
tifs place him as one of the most spectacular engravers of this period. 

Henry S. Fillebrown was another of the talented engravers employed by the company 
from 1860-1880. His engraving also employs naturalistic motifs, but most authorities feel that 
his work is more American in feeling than that of Louis Vaupel. Fillebrown used grapes, straw- 
berries, birds, and fish in his designs. 

The most elaborate cutting produced by the New England Glass Company was displayed 
at the 1876 Centennial Exposition. Contemporary accounts list fruit stands, decanters, gob- 
lets, celery glasses, and tumblers. Many of these were decorated in the Bohemian style, but 
a number also displayed deeper and heavier cutting than was customary. In these stylistic 
changes may be seen the first beginnings of the Brilliant Period. 

It should be noted that the techniques of cutting and engraving were applied to art 
glass all during the period. Both forms of decoration were easily adapted to achieving the 
colorful and spectacular effects admired by the late Victorians. Joseph Locke (1846-1936) 
was one of the best cutters of this period, using the cameo technique to cut a relief design 
superimposed on a ground color. 

Cut glass had always been costly because only the highest grade of metal could be 
used if the glass was to withstand the pressure of cutting. At the opening of the Brilliant 
Period, technological developments had advanced to a stage where the cutting lathes were 
driven by electric motors rather than by water or steam. The finishing wheels of cast iron 
were soon replaced by soft steel which created a sharper, more brilliant cut. This meant 
that deeper incisions could be made in the glass. In order to withstand the pressures created 

19 




JOHN RUFUS DENMAN (1877-1956). Cutting the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair gold medal punch bowl. 



by the deep cuts which were becoming the fashion, glass had to be of even, perfect quality 
throughout. This was made possible by the use of natural gas as a furnace fuel. Gas could 
be regulated and created a consistent high temperature. Fusion of the metal was made 
more rapid and annealing more perfect. The result was an exceptionally clear metal of con- 
siderable weight. It may truly be said that by the end of the 19th century craftsmen like 
those employed by the Libbey Glass Company were producing as fine a glass as the world 
had ever known. 

These mechanical improvements were coupled with an increased American prosperity. 
The American public was ready to buy elaborate sets of tableware to accompany its larger 
homes and more ornate furnishings. Taste had turned from the simple flutings and cuttings 
of the earlier period and now demanded a rich, opulent effect. The present-day observer of 
this phenomenon should bear in mind that the more formal living patterns of the late 19th 
and early 20th centuries required a greater number of correlated table settings. Cut glass 
was admirably suited to this need for complementary pieces. One Edwardian comment upon 
the prevailing taste for cut glass was that no table was considered to be socially correct unless 
it had "cost a million and weighed a ton". The references were to the weight and expense of 
cut glass. 

In order to understand the significance of cut glass of the Brilliant Period, one must un- 
derstand the time-consuming procedure which created it. The making of a fine piece in- 
volved three basic stages. When the blank of fine, heavy lead glass had been crafted, the 
pattern to be cut was drawn on the surface, usually with a mixture of red lead and turpentine. 
The cutter then roughed out his pattern by use of an iron wheel which was convex, flat, or 
V-shaped in profile, depending upon the cut desired. Frequently, the wheels had to be 
changed a number of times in an ornate pattern. 

The second step or smoothing process involved coating the wheel with a fine wet abra- 
sive and cutting further the lines established by the roughing. These cuts were then smoothed 
by sandstone wheels wet by water. These sandstone wheels also varied in size from two to 
about eighteen inches and were changed according to the pattern being followed. Following 
the smoothing came the final stage of polishing. Traditionally this process was done by the 
use of wooden wheels and a gentle abrasive such as putty powder. A final lustre could be 
added through the use of felt wheels dusted with rouge or a similar polishing agent. About 
1890, a chemical process involving the dipping of the cut glass in an acid bath came into 
use, although old-time glassworkers deplored the process and most experts feel that the 
finish thus acquired cannot match the traditional method. 

The copper-wheel engraving which was also used to decorate many other pieces of Vic- 
torian glass was an equally laborious process. The designs were created by copper discs 
of varying sizes revolving on a lathe. Both cutting and engraving were expensive processes, 
taking many hours for completion, and both required the finest lead glass. 



21 



The Libbey Glass Company carried on the finest tradition of craftsmanship of the New 
England Glass Company and continued to use lead glass of superb quality as well as hiring 
the most skilled cutters and engravers. Some of the company-connected names of the Brilliant 
Period which should be remembered are those of William C. Anderson, who designed for the 
company from 1887 until 1906. Anderson was the creator of the beautiful and popular Kim- 
berly and Wedgemere patterns as well as the Neola, the pattern in which an unusual glass 
table was cut for the 1904 St. Louis Exposition. William Marrett was another of the most 
talented Libbey designers and patented patterns for the company from 1897 until 1903. 
Marrett was the creator of the Chrysanthemum and Sultana patterns and designed the Mc- 
Kinley punch bowls. John Rufus Denman (1877-1956) was one of the company's most pro- 
ficient cutters. Denman cut both of the McKinley bowls and the spectacular 1904 St. Louis 
punch bowl. Many other designers and cutters of skill were employed at the Ash Street fac- 
tory in Toledo. 

With the exceptional glass and fine workmanship being produced by the Libbey plant, 
it is not surprising that until 1893, much American cut glass was represented to the public 
by prestige-conscious dealers and merchants as imported European ware. This aroused the 
leading manufacturers of American cut glass to a massive advertising campaign to educate 
the American public. In the succeeding years, the Libbey advertisements appeared in Har- 
per's, McClure's Country Life, and the Ladies' Home Journal, among others. These adver- 
tisements did much to inform the public and to expand the market for the wares of the com- 
pany. So effective was this campaign that Libbey and other fine cut glass became the most 
prestigious gift of the period. It was collected enthusiastically by an ever-increasing public. 

However, as early as 1900, first indications appeared of the waning popularity of cut 
glass. Some designs had become confused and overly ornate and were unacceptable to 
many. Some of the public had already tired of the glittering opulence of a table set with cut 
glass. Cutting costs within the factory itself had increased sharply, and designers began to 
look to patterns which would create the proper effect but less expensively. After 1905, 
the so-called "Pinwheel" and related patterns were produced in quantity. 

Copper wheel engraving, which had been eclipsed by cutting, was revived in an attempt 
to invigorate the fine glass market. Intaglio engraving, in realistic flowers, fruit, and figures 
was executed from about 1900 to 1910, although fine examples were made through the 
1920's. However, with the end of World War I, the increasing informality spelled the 
end of the popular interest in fine heavily ornated glass. 

In 1931, the Libbey Company hired A. Douglas Nash (1885-ca. 1945), whose father 
had been superintendent of the Tiffany Favrile Glass Works in Corona, Long Island, to de- 
sign a new series of fine glass decorated with cutting and engraving. Nash was well- 
acquainted with the tradition of fine glass and designed a series characterized by beautiful 
form and intricate surface effects. The new series specialized in tableware, and produced 



22 



formal stemware and matched centerpiece arrangements of candlesticks, bowls, and vases. 
The Toledo pattern, reminiscent of Brilliant Period cutting, was one of the beautiful designs 
produced as well as the famous cameo-cut goblet in the Victoria pattern. This piece required 
eighty hours of cutting and retailed for a commensurately high figure. The Depression, how- 
ever, did little to advance the popularity of these expensive and elaborate objects, and the 
Nash line was discontinued in 1935. 

In 1936, the company, now a division of the Owens-Illinois Glass Company, hired Ed- 
win W. Fuerst (1903-) to design a new series of fine glass to be called "Modern Ameri- 
can". The new ware was presented in 1939 to a few favored customers and released pub- 
licly in 1940. Heavy simple blown crystal pieces of a great brilliance, made possible by 
perfected mechanical means of mixing, characterized the new line. Fine glassware was also 
introduced at this time such as the Embassy stemware, designed in collaboration with Walter 
Dorwin Teague (1883-1960) for the State Dining Room in the Federal Building at the 1939 
New York World's Fair. Some of the chaste shapes of the line were ornamented with copper 
wheel engraving and simple flute cuts. The cutting was executed by John Rufus Denman 
(1877-1956) and the engraving by another highly skilled Libbey craftsman, Herman F. Hocke 
(1871-1944). Unlike the elaborate style of the Brilliant Period, the decoration of the 
Modern American pieces harked back to the old New England Glass Company and was sub- 
ordinate to the form of the object and the quality of the metal. The advent of World War II 
forced the discontinuation of this line in favor of war production. The Libbey Glass Company 
planned to produce "Modern American" after the war, but this was never done, and the line 
marked the end of fine completely handcrafted glass by the company. 



23 



Paperweights 



The fashion for glass paperweights began in the 1840's and became an item of New 
England Glass Company manufacture around 1850. Paperweights had, however, been made 
some years earlier by the individual gaffers for their own use or as presents. Although many 
American weights show a European influence because they were made by immigrant gaffers, 
they were never as brilliant as the weights produced in such French centers as Baccarat, 
Clichy, and Saint Louis. Research has been unable to date the majority of the paperweights, 
but the company is known to have been manufacturing them by the early 1850's due to the 
Victoria and Albert weight, derived from a medal executed in 1851 for the London Exposi- 
tion, and a latticinio weight with floral bouquets which is dated 1852 on one cane. 

Paperweights are categorized according to their diameters; three categories are accepted 
by collectors and scholars. These are the miniature (2 inch diameter or less), the standard 
(2 to 3 x /2 inch diameter), the magnum (over 3 inch diameter). At the New England Glass 
Company, all three sizes were made of clear lead glass, which comprised the major portion of 
the weight. 

The company had molds for flowers, animals, letters, figures, and stars which made up 
the decorative devices around which weights were constructed. These could be combined for 
an almost endless variety. Many of the New England Glass Company weights consisted of 
floral arrangements placed over a latticinio ground; these were known as Venetian. In later 
years, the company made weights using pressed objects such as reclining dogs, a miniature 
Plymouth Rock, and turtles. 

The most unusual and handsome weights were produced in the East Cambridge factory 
by Francois Pierre (ca. 1834-1872) who had supposedly been trained in the Baccarat factory. 
He is listed in the Cambridge Directory as early as 1849. These blown apple and pear 
weights were made by blowing glass from a tube with the fruit becoming red on one side and 
green or yellow on the other. As the glass came from the tube it was shaped and expanded 
to the size desired, drawn in, and finished with small bits of glass to form a stem or blos- 
som. The expansion of the two-colored glass produced a realistic, mottled effect. The 
pear or apple was then mounted on a foot of clear lead glass. 

Portrait paperweights were another characteristic product of the East Cambridge fac- 
tory. These pieces used portraits of Washington, Lincoln, Henry Clay, and Prince Albert as 
subjects. 

The company also made weights of clear glass resembling books from about 1865 to 
1880. These rectangular pieces of glass were then cut and engraved to resemble bindings, 
printed titles, and pages. 

The Boston and Sandwich Glass Company made similar paperweights during these years 
so that attribution to a specific company is frequently impossible. However, the New Eng- 
land Glass Company weights tend to be heavier than others. A further distinguishing mark 
of East Cambridge manufacture is a highly domed lower surface on which the canes or ground 
is arranged. 

24 



The Libbey Glass Company never made paperweights on a commercial scale although 
some simple examples were made as souvenir items for the 1893 Libbey pavilion at the 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago. 



Whimsies 



It was a firmly established tradition of the New England Glass Company that the workers 
be allowed to make objects for their own use from batches of the company glass. Some of the 
finest examples of early 19th century glass were produced in this manner. The workers usual- 
ly made presentation goblets and urns for their fellow workers as well as glass banks and 
toys for children. Glass canes, balls, and pipes were also popular items, and all of these 
incidental, non-official pieces of glass have cometo be known as "whimsies". 

Although the practice was finally discontinued at the East Cambridge plant, Edward Drum- 
mond Libbey revived the tradition when the company came to Toledo. Canes, spittoons, and 
toys were again favored items produced in idle moments. The canes were of particular im- 
portance since they were carried by the workers in the annual Labor Day parades. The color 
scheme was usually a variation of red, white, and blue. 

The workers also occasionally made fine table items, and many were presented at their 
marriages with a dozen wine glasses produced by their fellow workers. This stemware often 
displays exceptionally fine form and ornament. 



Art Glass 



The same Victorian public which so avidly bought cut and engraved glass also col- 
lected glass of novel coloring and exotic ornamentation. As the century progressed, increas- 
ing attention was concentrated on color effects and finishes rather than on form. 

All of the art glass produced by the New England Glass Company and the Libbey 
Glass Company was the result of experimentation by Joseph Locke (1846-1936), an experi- 
enced glass craftsman and technician, who was hired by the East Cambridge Company in 
1883. He patented art glass for the company until 1889. Locke accompanied Edmund Drum- 
mond Libbey to Toledo and remained in the city until 1891 when the Directory lists him as 
"removed to Wheeling, West Virginia". 

AMBERINA 

This red glass shading to amber was the first of Locke's patents for the New England 
Glass Company (1883) although its manufacture was the result of a blower's gold ring falling 
into a batch of glass. Amberina was not at first well received until Edward Drummond Libbey 
persuaded Tiffany and Company in New York to carry it. Amberina became a favorite in the 
late 19th century and was later made for a brief time in Toledo when the Libbey Glass Com- 
pany revived it from about 1918 to 1920. 

25 



POMONA 

Locke patented this etched and stained glass in 1885. The pieces were usually pattern 
molded and decorated with butterfly, pansy, and wild rose motifs. Fired mineral stains pro- 
duced iridescent tones of blue and amber. Pomona was difficult and expensive to produce 
and never claimed the popularity of Amberina so that it is today quite rare. 

WILD ROSE (Peachblow) 

This was the third of the Locke patents (1886) and was applied to a glass shading from 
white to rose; the finish was matte or glossy. The color and form of the glass was in- 
tended to simulate the famous Morgan Chinese peachblow vase which had been sold in 1886, 
although there is evidence that the New England Glass Company had experimented with the 
glass earlier, during its attempts to compete with other glasshouses. 

AGATA 

This type of glass was patented by Locke in 1887, and the technique involved splatter- 
ing Wild Rose objects with a mineral stain, producing a marbled surface. This surface was 
finished as glossy or matte. The stains used were generally amber or blue, although a gr£en 
stain was occasionally used. 

MAIZE 

This type of art glass was the last of the Locke patents for the company (1889). It was 
made for a brief time in East Cambridge by the W. L. Libbey and Son Company, but was 
largely produced by the company in Toledo. The glass is intended to look like kernels of 
corn with corn leaves in color (blue, green, and brown) at the bottoms and shoulders. The 
detail of these leaves is occasionally picked out in gold. 



26 



Libbey Trademarks 



The trademarks used by the New England Glass Company to mark its pieces are al- 
ready known to students of the field, and were described in the 1963 "New England Glass 
Company" exhibition catalogue. However, the marks employed by the Libbey Glass Com- 
pany are still the subject of debate. It is hoped that the following discussion of trademarks 
and their dates will aid in the dating of Libbey pieces. 

Numerous trademarks were registered in the late 19th century, but only the acid-etched 
mark on a piece of glass may be taken as infallible. The Libbey Glass Company advertised 
that the Libbey signature was applied to every piece, but research has shown that this 
practice was inconsistent. To compound the uncertainty, the Libbey Glass Company fre- 
quently illustrated trademarks in the text of their advertisements which were not actually used 
to mark pieces at the factory. 

The company began the practice of placing paper labels on its pieces around 1906, 
but these are rare today since they easily wore away, washed off, or simply fell away be- 
cause of insecure gluing. The earliest of these Libbey labels was square in shape and bore 
the company name. Labels of other shapes were used, but their dates are not known since 
the company often did not register the trademark. 

The collector and student should note that a similarity of metal and an extensive use 
of nearly identical patterns frequently make a definite attribution to a specific factory diffi- 
cult. 



The following is a list of definitely established trademarks and the dates of their use. 
1892-1896: An eagle, usually in red, enclosed in a circle with "Libbey Cut 

Glass, Toledo, Ohio" in the border. 




1896-1906: 




Libbey name in script with the "L" and the "Y" not connected. 
A sword under the whole. 



27 



1901: 




A five-pointed star enclosed within a circle. This was patented 
by the company on April 16, 1901, for use on pressed blanks 
which were sold to other companies for final cutting. The exist- 
ence of this patent disproves the contention of many collectors 
that the Libbey Glass Company never made pressed blanks. 



1906-ca. 1913: 



V>I>ei 



1919-1930: 




Libbey name in script with the "L" and "Y" connected. In 
advertisements, the banner formed by this connection bore 
the phrase "The World's Best". This phrase, however, was 
never placed on actual pieces of glass. 
At the same time, "Libbey" in an elongated ovoid pro- 
portion was used, but the "L" and "Y" were disconnected. 
This second mark is not common. 

A thin stylized "Libbey" with the "L" and "Y" connected ap- 
peared in a circle. Some authorities maintain that this trade- 
mark was first used in 1910, although this opinion is subject 
to debate. 



1933-1935: 




A paper label in blue and white was used with "Libbey" in a 
circle; this was stylistically similar to the 1919-1930 label, 
but the word "crystal" was written in block letters across the 
tail of the "L". 

On some pieces of this period, the earlier 1919-1930 mark 
is also found. 



1939-1945: 




This mark is very similar to the 1919-1930 version, but the 
circle is double-rimmed. 



1959-1968: 



^QAAey 



A script "Libbey" with a sword above and below appears on 
pieces of "1818" stemware. This is an adaptation of the old 
Libbey sword trademark. 



28 




Illustrations 



88 Plate, blown, cut, and engraved, about 1896. 
29 




3 Clear blown Mug with applied handle, circa 1830-1840. 



31 




46 Pair of Lamps, pressed glass, about 1825. 



32 









% 




182 Tall Vase with cover, Bohemian style, about 1845. 



33 




49 Spillholder or Spoonholder, pressed glass, circa 1850-1870. 



34 




57 Decanter, blown and cut, circa 18451865. 



35 











» * * * * -K< 

*.'*■*■■> v >V 








9 Pokal, latticinio technique, about 1860. 



36 




61 Goblet, blown, cut, and engraved, circa 1860-1870. 



37 




68 Vaupel Masterpiece Presentation Chalice, blown, cut, engraved, circa 1875-1880. 



38 




10 Lamp, blown, about 1865. 



39 



/ ^^%M i A 



%*V 





66 Compote, blown and cut, circa 1872-1876. 



40 




204 Vase, amberina, circa 1883-1888. 



41 




yjfo 




83 Punch Bowl and Cups, blown and engraved, circa 1892-1893. 



42 




91 Ice Cream Tray and Dishes, blown and cut, about 1897. 



43 




98 Cresceus Punchbowl, blown and cut, about 1900. 



44 




107 Table, blown and cut, 1902. 



45 




118 Decanter, blown and cut, about 1904. 



46 




114 Stemware Service, blown and engraved, 1904. 



47 




Ill The Libbey Punchbowl and Cups, blown and cut, 1904. 



48 




115 "Apotheosis of Transportation" plate, engraved, 1904. 



49 




144 Vase, blown, cut and engraved, about 1915. 



50 




169 Goblet, cameo cut, circa 1931-1935. 



51 





14, 19, 161, 163 Compote and 3 Goblets, circa 1931-1935. 



52 





{ 



m 




32, 35, 173 Modern American Vases, circa 1940-1945. 



53 




170 Vase, blown and engraved, circa 1940-1945. 



54 



Catalogue 



NOTE: The following entries are arranged in chronolog- 
ical order in sections. The reader wishing to date 
any item by a specific period in the history of 
American glass should refer to the chronology 
printed in the catalogue. All entries dated before 
1888 may be considered as products of the New 
England Glass Company; all those after 1888 are 
attributed to the Libbey Glass Company. 

FREE BLOWN GLASS 

1. DECANTER 

Ht. 8% inches overall. Blown lead glass, pressed 
stopper, clear. Applied guilloche bands on body. 
Circa 1820-1825. New England Glass Company or 
South Boston Glass Company. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 
Harold G. Duckworth, (64.122-A & B). 

2. SALT 

Ht. 4V2 inches. Blown, amethyst. Rare type with 
hollow bowl on double knopped stem, circular foot. 
Circa 1830-1840. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

3. MUG 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Diamond cut 
band at neck, hollow knop containing two 1821 
coins, cut rayed circular foot, applied handle. En- 
graved monogram: HSD and foliage sprays. 
Circa 1830-1840. New England Glass Company or 
South Boston Glass Company. 
Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (12.1096). 

4. PAIR OF GOBLETS 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown, clear. White latticinio threads, 

red bands at bowl and foot rims, baluster stems, 

circular feet. 

About 1840. 

Published: McKearin, G. S., American Glass, 1956, 

pi. 58-A. 

Lent by the Henry Ford Museum (60.10.88-A & B). 

5. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 9% inches overall. Blown and mold blown, clear. 

Gadrooned cover and base of body, wafer knop, 

circular foot. 

About 1840. 

Published: McKearin, G. S., American Glass, 1941, 

pi. 55, no. 5. Toledo Museum News, Summer 1961, 

p. 65. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (53.75). 

6. MUG 

Ht. 6Y 8 inches. Blown and mold blown, clear. Gad- 
rooned bowl base, applied handle, circular foot. 
Inscribed in a wreath flanked by two birds: W.W./ 
July/18th/1842. 
1842. 

Published: McKearin, G. S., American Glass, 1956, 
pi. 55. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (59.48). 



7. URN 

Ht. 10 inches. Blown, ruby with clear knop stem, 
two applied clear handles on baluster-shaped bowl. 
About 1855. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

8. LAMP 

Ht. 9 inches. Blown, ruby font, latticinio technique, 

brass shaft with square slate base inscribed: N.E.G. 

Co. Reverse: Viola M. Abbott. 

Circa 1855-1860. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

9. POKAL 

Ht. 13 2 /2 inches overall. Blown, latticinio technique 

over cobalt, cased in clear. Flaring shape, clear 

base ring, circular foot, ball finial on cover. 

About 1860. 

Latticinio technique over cobalt is rare. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

10. LAMP 

Ht. 11% inches with fitting. Blown, ruby font with 
white loopings, clear airtwist stem, circular foot. 
About 1865. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

11. BOTTLE 

Ht. 4% inches overall. Blown turquoise with white 

enamel flowers and foliage, gold enamel bands on 

body and stopper. 

About 1875. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (59.31-A & B). 

12. SET OF FOUR CLARET GLASSES 

Ht. 4% inches. Blown (?), light blue, canary, cran- 
berry, amber with applied flowers of different colors. 
About 1888. 

These glasses were supposedly made by the New 
England Glass Company for Edward Drummond 
Libbey, who presented them to a cousin who was 
married in 1888. 
Lent by the Bennington Museum, 
Gift of Miss Blanche E. Robinson (67.55, 1-4). 

13. FOOTED BOWL 

Ht. 6 inches. Diam. 10 15/16 inches. Blown, clear 
with coral swirl, hollow round knop, circular foot. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Also made with blue or citron swirl. 
Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

14. FOOTED COMPOTE 

Ht. 3% inches. L. of oval bowl 5% incjies. Blown 

and fumed to blue and iridescent gold, clear gold 

knop, circular foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 

This piece was designed for its present owner and 

is therefore probably unique. 

Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

15. PUNCH BOWL AND 10 CUPS 

Ht. of Bowl 7% inches. Diam. of Bowl 13Vfc inches. 
Ht. of Cups 3 inches. Diam. of Cups 2y 2 inches. 
Blown, clear with applied ruby lily pad prunts. En- 
graved initial W at rim of bowl. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by Mrs. Carl R. Megowen. 



55 



16. VASE 

Ht. 8 inches. Blown, combed, feathered rose thread 
on opaque white, cased in clear, circular foot. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Also made in green or blue. 
Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

17. COVERED CANDY JAR 

Ht. 9V4 inches. Blown, marvered combed blue fes- 
toons over opalescent white, cased in clear. 
Rounded bowl, spreading circular foot, socket finial 
on lid. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

18. GOBLET 

Ht. IOV2 inches. Blown, clear and deep blue. Lido 
pattern. Tapered bowl on spiral air stem with blue 
spiral striping, blue knop in center of stem. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.162). 

19. GOBLET 

Ht. 6V4 inches. Blown, opalescent "eyes" imbedded 
between gathers, hollow round knop, circular foot. 
Morning Mist pattern. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

20. CORDIAL GLASS 

Ht. 2% inches. Blown, fumed iridescent interior, 
blue. Blue Grotto pattern. Rounded bowl on clear 
knop and circular foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.369). 

21. VASE 

Ht. 7 l /n inches. Blown, clear. Inverted bell shape. 
Modern American Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

22. VASE 

Ht. 6Vi inches. Blown, long optic ribs on domed cir- 
cular foot, clear. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

23. VASE 

Ht. IOV2 inches. Blown, tooled, clear. Vertical corn- 
ucopia shape. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

24. VASE 

Ht. 8 inches. Blown, ribbed, clear. Cornucopia shape 
on two scrolled feet with spiralled tail. Modern 
American Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 



25. VASE 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown, spiral optic ribs, clear. Modern 
American Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

26. VASE 

Ht. 6% inches. Blown, long optic ribs, clear. Slight- 
ly flared shape, heavy base. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

27. VASE 

Ht. 7 inches. Blown, clear, heavy base. Modern 
American Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

28. VASE 

Ht. 10% inches. Blown, spiral optic ribs, clear. 
Modern American Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

29. FOOTED BOWL 

Ht. 7 l / 2 inches. Blown, clear. Round bowl on three 
bubble feet. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

30. SALAD BOWL 

Ht. A l / 2 inches. Diam. 9% inches. Blown, circular, 
clear. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

31. VASE 

Ht. 9% inches. Blown, clear. Slightly panelled, clear 
square base. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

32. VASE 

Ht. 10% inches. Blown, clear. Slightly flared shape 
on three bubble feet. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

33. ROSE BOWL 

Ht. 6y 2 inches. Diam. 7 x / 2 inches. Blown, spiral 
optic ribs, clear. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

34. TABLE SETTING (7 Pieces) 

Graduated in height from 6V2 inches to 3 l / 2 inches. 
Blown, clear. Waterford pattern. Modern American 
Series. Bucket bowls on turned stem, circular foot. 
Place setting consists of goblet, tumbler, claret, 
wine, sherbet, and cordial glasses. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 



56 



35. VASE 

Ht. 9% inches, Blown, spiral optic ribs, clear. Mod- 
ern American Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (40.153). 

36. VASE 

Ht. 18 3 / 4 inches. Blown, clear. Globular bowl with 
blister decoration and tall slender neck, tooled rim. 
About 1945. 

Made by John Staiger of the Libbey Glass Company. 
Not an item of the "Modern American" Series. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of John 
Staiger, (45.8). 

37. DECANTER 

Ht. 9*/2 inches overall. Blown, long optic ribs, clear. 

Pear shape, tear drop stopper. Modern American 

Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Libbey 

Glass Company (43.7-A & B). 

MOLD BLOWN GLASS 

38. COVERED SUGAR BOWL 

Ht. 5% inches overall. Blown in mold, clear. Dia- 
mond diapering and vertical ribs, rectangular shape. 
About 1820. 

Published: Antiques, August 1939, vol. 36, p. 69. 
McKearin, G. S., American Glass, 1947, p. 144, 
plate 124. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (53.14). 

39. FOOTED SALT 

Ht. ZVs inches. L. 3% inches. Blown in mold, clear. 

Fan ends and Diamond pattern. 

About 1825. 

Published: Spinning Wheel, vol. 22, March 1966, 

p. 38. Toledo Museum News, Winter 1965, vol. 8, 

no. 4, p. 90. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 

Harold G. Duckworth (65.44). 

40. CRUET 

Ht. 6% inches overall. Expanded mold blown (pat- 
tern molded), ruby. Panelled body, lip tooled into 
lozenge shape, clear square stopper, applied handle. 
Circa 1835-1850. 

The style of the lip of this piece is characteristic of 
the New England Glass Company. 
Lent by Mrs. Lowell Innes. 

41. DISH 

L. 8 inches. W. 6% inches. Blown in mold, clear. 
Diamond diapering, radiating center ribs, rectang- 
ular shape with truncated corners. 
About 1840. 

Published: Antiques, August 1939, vol. 36, p. 69. 
McKearin, G. S., American Glass, 1947, p. 144, 
pi. 124. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (53.15). 

42. PITCHER 

Ht. 8 inches. Blown three mold, flint glass, clear. 
Cylindrical body, with molded diamond pattern, 
flared tooled rim and broad lip. Applied handle. 



About 1869. 

Extremly rare: one of two known examples of this 

type. The other is in the collection of the Stur- 

bridge Village Museum in Massachusetts. 

Published: McKearin, G. S., American Glass, 1941, 

pi. 57-A. 

Lent by the Bennington Museum, the Joseph W. 

& May K. Limric Collection (59.589). 

43. PAIR OF CANDLESTICKS 

Ht. 7% inches. Expanded mold blown bobeches. 
tooled twisted stem, clear with dotted green decora- 
tion. Circular foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Also made with blue decoration. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

44. BOWL 

Ht. 5 inches. Diam. 9 l / 2 inches. Expanded mold 
blown, blue with fumed iridescent interior and 
turned-back fumed edge. Dotted decoration on ex- 
terior ribs, circular foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

45. COVERED CANDY JAR 

Ht. IOV2 inches overall. Expanded mold blown, 
partly combed blue threading between gathers of 
clear. Quilted pattern. Clear air bubble knop and 
fmial. Circular foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. C'rrca 1931-1935. 
Also made in rose and citron. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.222-A& B). 

PRESSED GLASS 

46. PAIR OF LAMPS 

Ht. 9 J /2 inches without fixture. Blown and pressed 

lead glass, clear. Classical pedestals with lions' 

heads and pilasters at corners, baskets of flowers 

at center, conical font. Not marked NEGC in base. 

About 1825. 

Published: Arts and Antiques, March 1966, vol. 1, 

no. 5, p. 34. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 

Harold G. Duckworth (64.70-A & B). 

47. PLATE 

Diam. 5% inches. Pressed lead glass, pale green. 
Strawberry-Diamond center, fans at scalloped edge. 
Circa 1825-1850. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 
Harold G. Duckworth (64.95). 

48. COMPOTE 

Ht. 8 inches. Diam. 8% inches. Pressed lead glass, 
clear. Diamond Point pattern. 
Circa 1840-1870. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.185). 

49. SPILLHOLDER OR SPOONHOLDER 

Ht. 5-9/16 inches. Pressed lead glass, amethyst. 

Bull's Eye pattern. 

Circa 1850-1870. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 

Harold G. Duckworth (65.65). 



57 



50. COVERED SUGAR BOWL 

Ht. 6 inches overall. Diam. 4 5 / 8 inches. Pressed lead 
glass, clear. California pattern. Octagonal bowl, 
panels with scrolls & foliage in relief. Circular foot. 
Circa 1865-1870. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 
Harold G. Duckworth (65.70-A & B). 
51. CELERY VASE 

Ht. 8% inches. Pressed lead glass, clear. Washing- 
ton pattern. Elliptical panels and circles on straight 
sided bowl, panelled stem. Circular foot. 
Circa 1870. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 
Hugh J. Smith, Jr. (48.34). 

52. PAIR OF GLASSES 

Ht. 6% inches. Blown, and pressed, clear. Sil- 
houette pattern. Molded kangaroos supporting a 
blown bowl. Circular foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Henry Ford Museum. 

53. PAIR OF WINE GLASSES 

Ht. 8% inches. Pressed ribbed stems, blown bowls, 
clear, tmbassy pattern. Modern American Series. 
Designed by tdwin W. Fuerst and Walter Dorwin 
league. Circa 1939-1945. 

Glasses bearing the plate-printed seal of an eagle 
and stars were used in the State Dining Room of 
the Federal Building at the 1939 World's Fair, New 
York. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

54. COCKTAIL GLASS 

Ht. 7 inches. Pressed columnar ribbed stem, blown 
bowl, clear. Monticello pattern. Modern American 
Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (40.167). 

CUT AND ENGRAVED GLASS, 
1818-1968 

55. LAMP 

Ht. 11-15/16 inches. Blown, pressed, and cut in 
diamond facets, clear. 

Cut by Joseph Burdakin, New England Glass Com- 
pany. About 1830. 
Gift of S. L. Fillebrown. 

Published: Watkins, L. W., Cambridge Glass, 1930, 
pi. 62. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (49.21). 

56. PITCHER 

Ht. 8-7/16 inches. Blown, cut in panels, clear. 

Applied plain handle. 

Circa 1835-1850. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (12.1383). 

57. DECANTER 

Ht. 12% inches overall. Blown and cut, clear. 

Panelled body with bull's-eyes and thumbprint cuts, 

bull's-eyes at shoulder, cut stopper. 

Circa 1845-1865. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 



58. PAIR OF DECANTERS 

Ht. 9 inches. Blown, cut, and engraved with "John 
H. Leighton" in script, clear. Heavy polygonal stop- 
pers with star cut tops, and floral motifs. 
Circa 1855-1860. 
Lent by Marion H. Pike. 

59. SPOONHOLDER 

Ht. 5 inches. Blown, mercury or silver glass, en- 
graved with scrolls and naturalistic motifs. 
Circa 1855-1865. 
Lent by Marion H. Pike. 

60. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3V 2 inches. Blown, clear, engraved with dogs, 
hare, and trees. Engraved by Henry Leighton, son 
of John H. Leighton. About 1860. 
Lent by Marion H. Pike. 

61. GOBLET 

Ht. 6V 2 inches. Blown, cut with grid base, clear. 
Engraved initials of Thomas Leighton in flowers. 
Circa 1860-1870. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

62. PRESENTATION CHALICE 

Ht. 8-1/16 inches. Blown and engraved, clear. En- 
graved with lilies of the valley and foliage, air twist 
stem, cut rayed circular foot. Inscribed: Presented 
to/Miss L. Edgenton/on her 23rd Birthday /March 
11, 1907. 
Circa 1860-1870. 

The inscription is obviously of a later date than 
the floral decoration. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

63. VASE 

Ht. 11 inches. Pink and white overlay, cut to clear. 

Monteith rim, floral cut banding. 

About 1865. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

64. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3 5 / a inches. Blown and cut, clear. Engraved 

with landscapes with castles and towns in three 

oval medallions; inscribed below the medallions: 

Morlik, Friedland, Bebrak. 

Perhaps by Henry Fillebrown. About 1870. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of S. L. 

Fillebrown (49.20). 

65. COVERED DISH 

Ht. 5% inches. Pressed, engraved with grape & 

floral motifs, clear. 

About 1870. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (59.29-A & B). 

66. COMPOTE 

Ht. 7% inches. Diam. of bowl 8 inches. Blown and 
cut with Strawberry diamonds and scallops, clear. 
Panelled stem, star-cut circular foot. 
Circa 1872-1876. 

Published: W. E. Fairfield, Fire and Sand, Cleve- 
land 1960, p. 5. Toledo Museum News, Summer 
1961, vol.4, no. 3, p. 67. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (59.25). 

67. GOBLET 

Ht. 8Y 8 inches. Sapphire blue overlay, cut to clear. 
Engraved with scenes of wolves and horse; reverse; 



58 



lions and buffalo. 

By Louis Vaupel. About 1875. 

Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, bequest 

of Dr. Minette D. Newman (61.1219). 

68. PRESENTATION CHALICE 

Ht. 9 inches. Ruby cased, engraved to clear. Pas- 
toral scene, cut scalloped foot. 
Engraved by Louis Vaupel. Circa 1875-1880. 
This chalice is considered to be the masterpiece of 
Louis Vaupel and represents the high point in Amer- 
ican Middle Period engraved glass. 
Lent by John Leyson Vaupel, Jr. 

69. GOBLETS 

Ht. 7 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Engraved with 
floral motifs, heraldic device and wreathed mono- 
gram L. V. 

By Louis Vaupel. Circa 1875-1880. 
The coat-of-arms was apparently devised by Vaupel 
for his own use, and the symbols refer to family 
history. 
Lent by John Leyson Vaupel. 

70. DECANTER 

Ht. 10% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Faceted neck 

ing & stopper. 

Inscribed on body: New Engld/Glass Co. /Boston. On 

reverse: Mass. Centl./Head Qrs. 

1876. 

Made by the New England Glass Company for the 

1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. 

Published: Antiques, April 1952, p. 331, lower right. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (48.4-A & B). 

71. COMPOTE 

Ht.l4V2 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Engraved with 

floral garlands and monogram MN. 

By Louis Vaupel. Circa 1880-1890. 

Engraved by Vaupel for his daughter Minette. 

Lent by John Leyson Vaupel. 

72. BEAKER 

Ht. 4% inches. Diam. 3% inches. Green overlay, cut 
to clear. Engraved with Greek Fret band and natu- 
ralistic fruit and floral motifs. Circular foot. 
By Louis Vaupel. Circa 1880-1890. 
Lent by John Leyson Vaupel. 

73. CRADLE 

Ht. 4-3/16 inches. L. 9 inches. Blown and cut, clear. 

Variant Russian pattern. 

Circa 1882-1886. 

Presented by Edward Drummond Libbey to the 

brother of the donor at birth. This is an unusual 

example of Brilliant Period cutting at an early date 

by the New England Glass Company, W. L. Libbey 

and Son, Proprietors. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. G. 

A. Morison (62.33). 

74. HONEY JUG 

Ht. 6% inches overall. Blown and cut, clear. Pat- 
tern similar to the Victoria pattern, applied cut 
handle, hinged domed metal top with stamped 
floral motifs. 
About 1889. 



Probably one of the early products of the company 
after its relocation in Toledo. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.216). 

75. PAIR OF SHERRY GLASSES 

Ht. 4Y 2 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Strawberry- 
Diamond and Fan pattern, prism stems, star-cut 
bases. 

About 1890. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.125, 51.126). 

76. DECANTER 

Ht. I2V2 inches overall. Blown, cut, and engraved. 
Daisies and stylized foliage scrolls in an overall pat- 
tern, faceted pinched neck, hexagonal engraved 
stopper with flat top. 
About 1890. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.61-A& B). 

77. ICE CREAM PLATE 

Diam. 8 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Kimberly pat- 
tern. 

Circa 1890-1892. 

Kimberly was one of the most popular Libbey pat- 
terns and was named in honor of Charles G. Kim- 
berly, a New Haven, Connecticut dealer in crockery 
and glassware. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.86). 

78. COVERED BUTTER DISH 

Ht. 5% inches overall. Diam. of plate 7 inches. 
Blown (?) and cut, clear. Modern Strawberry Dia- 
mond pattern, cut lapidary finials on domed cover. 
Circa 1890-93. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.215-A& B). 

79. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Diam. 2 l / 2 inches. Blown (?) and cut, 
clear. Pattern similar to Cut Lapidary pattern, star 
cut base. 
Circa 1890-1896. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.212). 

80. TWO HANDLED BOWL 

Ht. 3% inches. Diam. 6 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear. Pattern similar to Kimberly pattern, applied 
cut handles. 
About 1892. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.27). 

81. ICE CREAM PLATE 

Diam. 6% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Pattern 
similar to Isabella pattern but lacking the four 
terminating stars and fans. 
By John Rufus Denman. About 1892. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.87). 

82. TABLE LAMP 

Ht. 33 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Prism pattern. 
Round font on tapering baluster shaft, round globe, 
circular rayed foot. 



59 



Circa 1892-1893. 

Made by the Libbey Glass Company for the Colum- 
bian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.2). 

83. PUNCHBOWL AND 6 CUPS 

Ht. of Bowl 13-13/16 inches. Diam. 12y a inches. 
Ht. of Cups 3% inches. Diam. 2% inches. Blown 
and engraved with hunting scene, clear. This unique 
set was awarded a gold medal at the 1893 Colum- 
bian Exposition in Chicago. The style is earlier than 
1893, and there are indications that Louis Vaupel 
may have engraved it some years before the Ex- 
position. 

Perhaps 1892-1893. 

Published: Fairfield, W. E., Fire and Sand, Cleveland, 
1960, p. 45. 

Marsh, T. H., The American Story Recorded in Glass, 
1962, p. 345. 

Revi, American Cut and Engraved Glass, 1965, p. 26. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Lib- 
bey Glass Company (15.16-A & G). 

84. DRESS & PARASOL 

Spun glass fibre on a silk warp. This dress and 
parasol were made for the 1893 Columbian Expo- 
sition. It is one of three dresses made of this 
fabric, the most famous of which was acquired by 
Princess Eulalia of Spain in 1893. 
Published: Field, K., The Drama of Glass, n.d., p. 31. 
Revi, A. C, The Glass Industry, June 1958, p. 326. 
Revi, A. C, Nineteenth Century Glass, its Genesis 
and Development, 1959, p. 121. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1951). 

85. ICE TUB 

Ht. 4^ inches. L. IIV2 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear. Pattern similar to Avon pattern, oval shape 
with scalloped rim. 
1895. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.32). 

86. PLATE 

Diam. 7 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Variant Hob- 
star pattern. 
Circa 1895-1900. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

87. COMPOTE 

Ht. 5% inches. Diam. 6% inches. Blown and cut, 
clear. Pattern similar to Harvard pattern. 
Circa 1895-1900. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (N. D.) 

88. PLATE 

Diam. 12 inches. Blown (?), cut, and engraved, 
dear. Sultana pattern in border, engraved in center 
with Libbey sabre signature and "This Trademark 
Cut on Every Piece". 
About 1896. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.266). 



89. VASE 

Ht. 14 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Bull's Eye and 

Star pattern. S'ender trumpet shape, air bubble 

knop, rayed circular foot. 

Circa 1896-1900. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

90. VASE 

Ht. 13 15/16 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Reverse 
baluster shape with stars, shields, leaf sprays, and 
ribbons. 

Circa 1896-1900. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.48). 

91. ICE CREAM TRAY AND 2 DISHES 

Ht. of tray 2 l / 2 inches. L. 17Vi inches. Diam. of 
dishes 6% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Prism pat- 
tern. 

About 1897. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

92. TOILET BOTTLE 

Ht. 6% inches overall. Blown, cut, and engraved, 
clear. Engraved with flowers and scrolled foliage 
motifs, cut lapidary stopper. 
About 1897. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.214-A& B). 

93. PAIR OF TOILET BOTTLES 

Ht. 7V2 inches. Blown, and cut, clear. Hob-star and 

Fan motif, similar to Corinthian pattern, star cut 

bases, cut lapidary stoppers. 

About 1897. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

94. PUNCHBOWL AND 12 CUPS WITH LADLE 

Ht. of Bowl 17 inches. Diam. of bowl 18 inches. Ht. 
of cups A l /e inches. Diam. of cups 3Vs inches. L. 
of ladle 13 inches. 

Blown and cut, clear. Shields, Stars, and Stripes, 
pattern. Cut by John Rufus Denman. 1898. 
This punch set was the "twin" of the punchbowl 
presented to President William McKinley in 1898. 
Following established practice, two identical sets 
were made of special presentation pieces, in the 
event that one was damaged. The location of the 
original "McKinley Bowl" is not known. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Carl U. Fauster. 

95. RING DISH 

Ht. 4 inches. Diam. 4% inches. Blown (?) and cut, 
clear. Strawberry-Diamond and Fan pattern. 
About 1900. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

96. PITCHER 

Ht. 6-3/16 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Pattern of 
hob-stars in triangular panels alternating with dia- 
mond panels, scalloped rim, applied cut handle. 
About 1900. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.26). 

97. PAIR OF CLARET GLASSES 

Ht. 5Vi inches. Blown (?) and cut, clear. Colonna 

pattern. 

About 1900. 



60 



Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 
Louis Cates (51.407, 51.408). 

98. PUNCHBOWL 

Ht. 12 ! /2 inches. Diam. 14 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear. Pattern similar to Corinthian, Marcella, and 
Jermyn patterns. 
About 1900. 

This punchbowl is known as the "Cresceus Bowl" 
since it was presented to Cresceus, a world-famous 
trotting horse owned by Mr. George H. Ketcham of 
Toledo. In his day, Cresceus was the holder of dif- 
ferent world's trotting records. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward G. Kirby, Jr. (63.38-A & B). 

99. PITCHER 

Ht. 10y 8 inches. Blown and cut, clear with pale 
translucent blue portions. Pattern similar to Som- 
erset pattern, applied cut handle. 
About 1900. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. F. 
A. Dewey (50.1). 

100. NIGHTCAP BOTTLE 

Ht. 6 inches overall. Blown and engraved, clear. 
Panelled squat baluster shape, engraved with corn 
cobs and foliage. 
About 1900. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.211-A, B & C). 

101. BOWL 

Ht. 3V2 inches. Diam. 8-1/16 inches. Blown (?) and 
cut, clear. Pattern similar to Corinthian pattern but 
centers star in a pinwheel. 
Circa 1900-1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.37). 

102. ICE CREAM TRAY 

Ht. 2V2 inches. L. I3V2 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear. Variant Pinwheel pattern, rectangular with 
rounded corners. 
Circa 1900-1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.89). 

103. BOWL 

Ht. 3 7 / 8 inches. Diam. 8 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear. Thistle pattern with Harvard band. 
Circa 1900-1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.34). 

104. VASE 

Ht. 11% inches. Black cased over clear. Engraved 

with orchids and stylized leaves. 

Circa 1900-1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 

John H. Wright (55.7). 

105. FLOWER GLOBE 

Ht. 8 inches overall. Diam. 6V2 inches. Blown and 
cut, clear. Pattern similar to Rose pattern, three 
applied feet. 
Circa 1900-1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.29). 



106. BOWL 

Ht. 3-13/16 inches. Diam. 8-13/16 inches. Blown 
(?) and cut, clear. Pattern somewhat similar to 
Glorietta pattern (band of vertical mitre cuts and 
stars), broadly scalloped rim. 
About 1901. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.36). 

107. TABLE 

Ht. 32 inches. Diam. of top 28 inches. Mold-blown 
and cut, clear. Neola pattern. 
Probably cut by John Rufus Denman. 1902. 
This unique three-piece table was designed for the 
Libbey Glass Company display at the St. Louis 
World's Fair of 1904. 

Published: Revi, A. C, American Cut and Engraved 
Glass, 1965, p. 32. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.1 AC). 

108. EPERGNE 

Ht. 20% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Engraved 
with flowers, leaves, beaded garlands and bowknots. 
Fluted base engraved with sprays of 3 leaves on 
each flute. 
About 1902. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.12). 

109. DISH 

Diam. 7 inches. Blown (?) and cut, clear. Sultana 

pattern with engraved initials M. L. (Mattie Litscher) 

at one edge. 

About 1903. 

This piece is unique in that it displays several stages 

of the cutting process. The initials are those of the 

first owner. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 

Edwin H. Reed (42.14). 

110. VASE 

Ht. 20 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Large cut floral 
pattern with stylized leaves; possibly a unique pat- 
tern, mitre cuts and tall wide flutes at base. Neck 
with flared scalloped rim, cut circular scalloped foot. 
About 1903. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.07). 

111. PUNCHBOWL AND 23 CUPS 

Ht with base 24 inches. Diam. of bowl 25 inches. 
Ht. of cups 4V8 inches. Diam. 3 l / & inches. Blown 
and cut, clear. Star and Diamond pattern. 
Cut by John Rufus Denman. 1903-1904. 
This bowl and cups were cut for the St. Louis 
World's Fair of 1904, where it received a Citation of 
Honor. 

Published: Marsh, T. H., The American Story Record- 
ed in Glass, 1962, p. 398. 

Revi, American Cut and Engraved Glass, 1965, p. 37. 
Spaeth, E., American Art Museums and Galleries, 
1960, p. 132. 

Toledo Museum News, Autumn 1966, Vol. 9, No. 3, 
p. 68. 



61 



Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (46.27 AY). 

112. VASE 

Ht. 23% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Baluster 
shape on circular rayed foot with tall neck flared 
and scalloped at rim, cut in eclectic geometric 
pattern. 

Circa 1903-1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.5). 

113. VASE 

Ht. 13% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Tall slender 
shape, cut in pattern similar to New Brilliant Pat- 
tern. 

Circa 1903-1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.50). 

114. STEMWARE (6 pieces) 

Graduated in height from 6-9/16 inches to 3% 
inches. Blown and engraved, clear. 
1904. 

This set was made for the St. Louis World's Fair. 
All of the glasses were of the same pattern but for 
a round-bowled wine, which was made in a com- 
patible variant. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

115. PLATE 

Diam. 12-5/16 inches. Blown (?), and engraved, 
clear. Round with scalloped edge. Center engraved 
with figures, globe, horses, dolphins, and waves. 
The subject of this superb copper-wheel engraving 
is "The Apotheosis of Transportation". The design 
is a reproduction of John J. Boyle's allegorical 
sculpture of the same title which appeared in the 
tympanum of the Transportation Building at the 
1893 Columbian Exposition. This plate was made 
for the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904. 
1904. 
Lent by the Smithsonian Institution (44943). 

116. TABLE LAMP 

Ht. 40 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Sunburst pat- 
tern. 

About 1900. 

This lamp has always been called "the Nolan lamp." 
This may be in honor of a cutter named C. J. Nolan. 
The pattern is a rare one. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.3). 

117. FLOOR LAMP 

Ht. 53% inches without chimney. Blown (?) and 
cut, clear. Probably Corinthian pattern. Flared spread 
base, tapering shaft, rounded font, round globe. 
1904. 

Published: Revi, A. O, American Cut and Engraved 
Glass, 1965, p. 36. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.4). 

118. DECANTER 

Ht. 19Vs inches overall. Blown and cut, clear. Tall 
tapering shape with variant sunburst pattern and 



matching stopper, cut circular foot and applied cut 

handle. 

About 1904. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Helen 

Teal Shepherd (58.73-A & B). 

119. PAIR OF CRUETS 

Ht. 6 7 / s inches overall. Blown and cut, clear. Cylin- 
drical body with tapered neck, cut in eclectic 
pattern of Notched Prism, Hob-star, and Single 
Star, cut stoppers, applied handles. 
About 1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.209-A & B, 51.210-A & B). 

120. VASE 

Ht. 20 inches. Blown, clear. Engraved with flowers, 

stylized leaves, and a peacock. Scallops at rim and 

foot bear Peacock Eye motif. 

About 1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of C. J. 

Wilcox, (27.105). 

121. PUNCHBOWL 

Ht. 12 inches. Diam. 14 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear. Engraved with ovals, fern sprays, and flowers. 
Separable base. 
About 1905. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.14). 

122. SUGAR BOWL 

Ht. 3 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Radiant pattern, 
two applied handles. 
Circa 1905-1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.223). 

123. VASE 

Ht. 14 inches. Purple-blue overlay engraved to clear 
with stylized blossoms, tendrils, and laeves. 
Circa 1905-1910. 
Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

124. PITCHER 

Ht. 12% inches. Blown (?) and engraved, clear. 
Daffodil-like blossoms and stylized foliate scrolling 
in an overall pattern, applied engraved handle, 
scalloped lip. 
Circa 1905-1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.21). 

125. DECANTER 

Ht. 12% inches overall. Blown, cut, and engraved, 

clear. Engraved with flowers, ribbons, and foliage, 

cut beading at base. 

Circa 1905-1915. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

126. WINE GLASS 

Ht. 4y 2 inches. Blown, cut and engraved. This piece 

is en suite with the above. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

127. VASE 

Ht. 7 J /2 inches. Diam. 8-5/16 inches. Blown and 
engraved, clear. Engraved with urns, flowers, and 
dolphins; flared fluted shape on circular foot, scal- 
loped edge. 



62 



Circa 1906-1915. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

128. PITCHER 

Ht. ll 5 / 8 inches. Blown (?) and cut, clear. Tapering 
shape, cut in Greek Key pattern, applied handle. 
About 1907. 

This piece illustrates the later Brilliant Period desire 
for less ornate patterns are well as the attempt of 
the glass companies to simplify the cutting in order 
to maintain a reasonable production cost. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.20). 

129. VASE 

Ht. 14 inches. Blue-purple overlay, engraved to 
c.ear with jonquils and foliage. 
About 1907. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.16). 

130. VASE 

Ht. 9 3 / 4 inches. Green overlay, cut to clear. Thistles 
and shamrocks in arched panels, clear panelled 
stem, dark green knop. 
Circa 1907-1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.9). 

131. MUG 

Ht. 6 3 / 4 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Pattern similar 
to New Brilliant pattern, applied cut handle. 
About 1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward G. Kirby, Jr. (63.39). 

132. DECANTER 

Ht. 14% inches overall. Blown and cut, clear. 
Senora pattern with cut lapidary stopper, tapered 
bottle shape, faceted neck ring. Chip in neck. 
About 1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.26-A& B). 

133. HUMIDOR 

Ht. 10 inches overall. Blown and cut, clear. New 
Brilliant pattern, barrel shape, cut lapidary finial on 
lid. 

About 1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.217-A& B). 

134. VASE 

Ht. 7 5 / 8 inches. Blown, cut, and engraved, clear. 
Flaring fluted shape, engraved with apples, leaves, 
and branches, scalloped rim, circular star-cut base. 
About 1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.49). 

135. CARAFE 

Ht. 9Vi inches. Blown (?) and cut, clear. Pattern 

similar to Idea pattern. 

About 1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 

John Stifel (51.306). 

136. VASE 

Ht. 15-15/16 inches. Blown, cut, and engraved, 
clear. Slender bowl on circular engraved foot, flar- 



ing tooled rim. Engraved with blossoms, beading, 
and foliage, cut circles. 
About 1910. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.58). 

137. PITCHER 

Ht. 12 inches. B'own (?), cut, and engraved, clear. 

Engraved with large Poppy flowers, leaves, and buds 

in an overall pattern; fluted, scalloped edge, applied 

handle. 

Circa 1910-1915. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

138. VASE 

Ht. 9 inches. Ruby overlay, engraved to clear with 
stylized lilies and foliage, flared tooled mouth. 
Circa 1910-1915. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.15). 

139. VASE 

Ht. 18% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Large flowers 
and foliage, turned back rim with scalloped edge, 
cut base. 
Circa 1910-1915. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.10). 

140. PLATE 

Diam. 7 inches. Blown and cut, clear. 
Circa 1910-1919. 

The matte finish of this plate is due to its unfin- 
ished state. It has been cut but has not been pol- 
ished. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

141. PLATE 

Diam. 10-15/16 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Har- 
vard pattern border with center floral motif. 
Circa 1910-1919. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.82). 

142. GOBLET 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Pattern similar 
to Jermyn pattern, straight-sided bowl, prism stem, 
star-cut circular base. 
Circa 1910-1920. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.151). 

143. VASE 

Ht. 12Vi inches. Blown, cut, and engraved, clear. 
Cut thumbprint band at shoulder of round bowl. 
Bowl engraved with flowers, cherries, leaves and 
beading with slender neck, tooled rim. 
Circa 1910-1920. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.60). 

144. VASE 

Ht. 18% inches. Blown, cut, and engraved, clear. 
Baluster shape, engraved stags, cut floral sprays, 
faceted band at base, tooled flared rim with zig- 
zag band and fans. 
About 1915. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.6). 



63 



145. DECANTER 

Ht. 11% inches overall. Blown, cut, and engraved, 
clear. Trellised pattern at base, shoulder engraved 
with leaves and blossoms, faceted neck, mushroom- 
type stopper. 
About 1915. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.68-A& B). 

146. BUD VASE 

Ht. 11-5/16 inches. Blue overlay, engraved to clear, 

with leaves and circles. Tall thin neck on squat 

round bowl. 

Circa 1915-1925. 

Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

147. COMPOTE 

Ht. 5y 2 inchse. Diam. 7 inches. Blown, cut, and en- 
graved, clear. Floral motifs, line engraving, spiral 
stem. 

Circa 1915-1925. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.181). 

148. PITCHER 

Ht. 9 inches. Blown (?) and engraved, clear. En- 
graved with cattails and leaves, applied plain handle. 
About 1920. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

149. PITCHER 

Ht. 14 inches. Blown (?) and cut, clear. Inverted 
baluster shape on dome foot, cut and engraved with 
blossoms and floral sprays in mandorla-shaped 
panels, alternating diamonds and stars at shoulder, 
applied cut handle. 
About 1920. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.19). 

150. VASE 

Ht. I3y 2 inches. Blown, cut, and engraved, clear. 
Trumpet shape, Cherry Blossom pattern, air bub- 
ble knop. Slight chips at rim. 
About 1920. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.54). 

151. COVERED JAR 

Ht. 10^8 inches without cover. Black cased glass, 

cut to clear. Geometric pattern of bull's eyes, clear 

panelled finial on cover. 

About 1920. 

Lent by Mrs. Carl R. Megowen. 

152. CANDLESTICK 

Ht. 14 J /2 inches. Blown and engraved, clear. Balus- 
ter-like shape on spreading circular foot. Engraved 
with blossoms and leaves at base, and beading at 
shoulder. 
About 1920. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.74). 

153. CANDLESTICK 

Ht. 14 inches. Deep ruby overlay, cut to clear with 
circles and stars. Flat saucer bobeche and base. 
Circa 1920-1925. 



Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.77-A&B). 

154. VASE 

Ht. 18 inches. Purple overlay, cut to clear. Stylized 
flowers, cut bands at base of neck and rim. 
Circa 1920-1925. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.8). 

155. CANDLESTICK 

Ht. 10-5/16 inches. Black overlay cut to clear. Bal- 
uster-type stem cut with Strawberry-Diamond and 
thumbprint bands, circular foot, black bobeche. 
About 1925. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.72). 

156. CANDLESTICK 

Ht. 10% inches. Deep ruby overlay, cut to clear. 
Inverted trumpet shape, fine diamond-hatched band 
at foot and base of stem, deep vertical mitre cuts 
in flared base, bands at base of socket. 
Circa 1925-1930. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.79). 

157. PAIR OF DECANTERS 

Ht. 15V2 inches overall. Blown and cut, clear. Panels 
and graduated circles, steeple-type stoppers. 
About 1930. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.63-A & B, 51.64- A& B). 

158. GOBLET 

Ht. 8% inches. Blown and cut, clear with blue. 
Similar to Venetian pattern but cut in Strawberry- 
Diamond triangles. Stem of alternating wafers and 
balls with blue beads, deep coned circular foot. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Possibly an experimental design. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Libbey 
Glass Company (35.15). 

159. GOBLET 

Ht. 8-5/16 inches. Blown, cut, and engraved. Ox- 
ford pattern. Engraved bowl, cranberry flashed 
panelled stem, engraved circular foot. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Also made in clear only. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Libbey 
Company (35.20). 

160. GOBLET 

Ht. 6% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Baronial pat- 
tern. Barrel shape bowl, wafer knop, circular foot. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.156). 

161. GOBLET 

Ht. 10% inches. Blown and engraved, clear with 
ruby threading. Baluster-like bowl with elaborate 
engraving of scrolls and baskets of fruit, spiral en- 
graved stem threaded in ruby, engraved circular 
foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Since this goblet is not listed in the Nash Catalogue, 
it is probable that it is an experimental design and 



64 



possibly unique. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.155). 

162. PAIR OF GOBLETS 

Ht. 9V& inches. Pink opalescent overlay, cut to 
clear. Buckingham pattern. Strawberry-Diamond cut 
bowl, cranberry panelled upper stem, cut circular 
foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.153, 43.154). 

163. GOBLET 

Ht. 9V 8 inches. Ruby flashed, cut to clear. Cam- 
panille pattern. Stylized scrolls, foliage, and ribbons, 
alternating wafer and bubble stem, clear circular 
foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.179). 

164. GOBLET 

Ht. 10 inches. Ruby flashed, cut to clear. Pompeian 
pattern. Ruby mitre cut rim ruby threaded stem 
with ruby ball at center, cut circular foot. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.180). 

165. TUMBLER 

Ht. 5% inches. Blown (?) and cut, clear. Kenmore 
pattern. Intertwined blossoms and foliage. 
Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

166. GOBLET 

Ht. 6% inches. Blown, cut, and engraved, clear. 
Mandarin pattern. Pattern of intertwined blossoms, 
leaves and branches. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
This design was considered to reflect the technique 
of "true Chinese rock crystal." 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

167. CHAMPAGNE GOBLET 

Ht. 7-9/16 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Toledo 
pattern. Variation of traditional Strawberry-Diamond 
and Fan with hob-stars. Air bubble cut stem, cut 
circular foot. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

168. GOBLET 

Ht. 10 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Matches item 
above. 

Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

169. GOBLET 

Ht. 914 inches. White and pink cased, cameo cut. 
Victoria pattern. Four cameos in scalloped frames 
separated by scrolled columnar devices centered 
with torches. Panelled stem with ruby knop, cut 
circular foot. 



Designed by A. Douglas Nash. Circa 1931-1935. 
This pattern represents the most elaborate of the 
Nash designs for the company. Only a dozen of 
these goblets were made, and only two are known 
to exist today. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Carl U. Fauster. 

170. VASE 

Ht. 6V2 inches. Blown and engraved, clear. En- 
graved with reclining gazelle. Round shape on domed 
circular foot. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (40.146). 

171. VASE 

Ht. 6V2 inches. Blown and engraved, clear. En- 
graved with crane in flight. Barrel shape on high 
circular domed foot. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (40.143). 

172. VASE 

Ht. 10 inches. Blown and engraved, clear. Engraved 
with giraffe and leaves. Tall cylinder set on square 
base. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (40.144). 

173. VASE 

Ht. 8% inches. Blown and cut, clear. Mitre cut 
graduated flutes on tapered baluster shape. Modern 
American Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (43.18). 

174. VASE 

Ht. 6V2 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Flared shape 
with finger cut flutes. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

175. VASE 

Ht. 8V2 inches. Blown and cut, clear. Baluster shape 
with flute cut base. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

176. VASE 

Ht. 6*4 inches. Blown, cut, and engraved. Flared 
shape tooled in panels, engraved with floral sprays, 
round flute cut base. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
The engraved decoration is probably a design experi- 
ment. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

177. PAIR OF CANDLESTICKS 

Ht. 2 inches. Diam. 3 inches. Blown and cut in 
flutes, clear. Modern American Series. 
Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 



65 



178. VASE 

Ht. 9 l / 2 inches. Blown, cut, and engraved, clear. 
Engraved with floral sprays alternating with cut 
finger flutes, flute cut circular base. Modern Amer- 
ican Series. 

Designed by Edwin W. Fuerst. Circa 1940-1945. 
This unique vase was decorated for its present 
owner by John Rufus Denman. 
Lent by Harry J. Durholt. 

179. TUMBLER 

Ht. 5Vs inches. Blown (?) and engraved, clear. En- 
graved with female profile bust. Tapered cylinder 
shape with heavy base. 
About 1945. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

180. SHERBET GLASS 

Ht. 4 inches. Machine-blown and handcut, clear. 
Yorktown pattern. 

Designed by Freda Diamond. 1959-1968. 
This glass is part of the 1818 Series. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

181. PAIR OF GOBLETS 

Ht. 6-5/16 inches. Machine-blown and handcut, 
clear. Williamsburg pattern. 
Designed by Freda Diamond. 1959-1968. 
These goblets are part of the 1818 Series. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

BOHEMIAN STYLE 

182. TALL VASE WITH COVER 

Ht. 29% inches overall. Blown, ruby flashing over 

clear, cutting of bands, intersecting and parallel 

lines, and stars. Tapering shape, domed cover with 

panelled finial. 

About 1845. 

Published: Fairfield, W. E., Fire and Sand, 1960, 

p. 5. Revi, A. C, American Cut and Engraved Glass, 

1965, p. 20. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Frank 

W. Gunsaulus (13.540.) 

183. MUG 

Ht. 5 inches. Blown, ruby flashing over clear, en- 
graved in panel with building. 
Inscribed: Union Hall, Saratoga Springs. 
Circa 1840-1850. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

184. GOBLET 

Ht. 5 l /t inches. Blown, ruby stain over clear, en- 
graved with building, garden, and trees. Inscribed: 
Ontario Female Seminary, Canandaigua, New York. 
Straight sides, panelled base, scalloped foot. 
Circa 1840-1850. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

185. GOBLET 

Ht. 5y 4 inches. Blown, some ruby stain over clear 
with engraved scene of Niagara Falls, floral motifs. 
Inscribed: Niagara Falls. Straight sides, circular foot. 
Circa 1845-1850. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 



186. PITCHER 

Ht. 7 inches. Blown, ruby over clear, engraved with 

hunting scene. 

Circa 1855-1865. 

This pitcher has descended in the family of John 

H. Leighton. 

Lent by Marion H. Pike. 

PAPERWEIGHTS 

187. DOORKNOB 

Ht. 3 inches, including wood base. Diam. 2 1 / 2 
inches. Blown, paperweight technique, concentric 
design, with rabbit canes in center and outer edge. 
About 1850. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Barber Collec- 
tion (17.529). 

188. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2i/ 2 inches. Blown, scrambled design with 
eagle cane. 
Circa 1850-1855. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Barber Collec- 
tion (17.469). 

189. PAPERWEIGHT 

Ht. 2 inches. Diam. 3 inches. Blown, yellow pear 

on a clear, circular foot. 

By Francois Pierre. Circa 1850-1865. 

Lent by Marion H. Pike. 

190. PAPERWEIGHT 

Ht. 2 inches. Diam. 3 inches. Blown, red apple on 

a clear circular foot. 

By Francois Pierre. Circa 1850-1865. 

Lent by Marion H. Pike. 

191. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2y a inches. Blown, scrambled design, several 
canes dated 1852. 
1852. 

A rare dated paperweight. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Barber Collec- 
tion (17.448). 

192. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2 inches. Blown, spoked barberpole rods on 
white domed ground. 

About 1855. New England Glass Company or Bos- 
ton and Sandwich Glass Company. 
Rare. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Barber Collec- 
tion (17.463). 

193. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2V2 inches. Blown, cluster of fruit on a latti- 
cinio ground. 
About 1860. 

Weights with a fruit or floral cluster above a lat- 
ticing ground were known as Venetian. 
Lent by Marion H. Pike. 

194. BOOK WEIGHT 

Ht. IV2 inches. L. 4 inches. Blown (?) and en- 
graved, clear. Engraved with floral motifs and in- 
scribed: Life of W. W. Pike. 
About 1865. 

This paperweight has descended in the Leighton 
family. 
Lent by Marion H. Pike. 



66 



195. PAPERWEIGHT 

L. 4 inches. Pressed, clear. Transfer printed (?) 

view of New York State Building on opaque white. 

Rectangular with rounded corners. Inscribed: New 

York State Building/Columbian Exposition 1893/ 

made at World's Fair by Libbey Glass Company, 

Patented. 

About 1893. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art (apparatus, 

n.d.). 

196. PAPERWEIGHT 

L. 3 inches, irregular square. Pressed, frosted female 

head in profile to the right, clear ground. 

About 1893. 

Made for sale as a souvenir at the Libbey pavilion, 

1893 Columbian Exposition, Chicago. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of William 

E. Levis (51.299). 

WHIMSIES 

197. PIPE 

L. 25 inches. Blown, stem of blue, bowl of opales- 
cent white, turquoise interior. Perhaps blown by 
Frank Henroit or C. J. Nolan of the Libbey Glass 
Company. 
About 1900. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Carl U. Fauster. 

198. CANE 

Length 59 inches. Blown, spiralled red ribbons witrr 

borders and blue ribbons cased in clear. 

Circa 1900-1910. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Carl U. Fauster. 

199. CANE 

Length 59 inches. Blown, clear with red, white, blue, 
and orange ribbon swirl in center. Crooked end. 
About 1910. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Carl U. Fauster. 

200. SPITTOON 

Ht. 5% inches. Diam. 7 inches. Blown, gold ruby. 

Round bowl with flared lip. Made by Nick Scheils, 

one of the Libbey Glass Company's most skilled 

blowers, for a friend. 

About 1915. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Carl U. Fauster. 

201. CANE 

Length 36% inches. Blown, blue, textured surface 

with partially imbedded spiralled red and white 

threads. 

Made by William Higgins, a Libbey Glass Company 

craftsman. 

About 1926. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Carl U. Fauster. 

ART GLASS 

AMBERINA 

202. MUG 

Ht. 5-11/16 inches. Blown and cut in Russian pat- 
tern. Applied cut handle. 
Circa 1883-1888. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
IHinois, Inc. (51.201). 



203. PITCHER 

Ht. 12% inches. Blown and cut in Russian pattern. 
Star cut base, applied handle. 
Circa 1883-1888. 

Lent by Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Miss Dorothy- 
Lee Jones (67.14). 

204. VASE 

Ht. 7% inches. Mold blown and tooled. Drinking 

horn shape, applied circular domde foot. 

Circa 1883-1888. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Marie 

W. Greenhalgh (58.63). 

205. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3% inches. Blown, eight ribs, rare plated Am- 

berina technique. 

About 1886. 

Lent by the Bennington Museum, the Mr. and Mrs. 

Kenneth Vincent Collection. 

206. VASE 

Ht. 6% inches. Expanded mold blown with turned- 
back lip. 

Circa 1918-1920. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

207. VASE 

Ht. I6V4 inches. Expanded mold blown. Round 
bowl, slender neck with tooled, turned-back lip. 
Circa 1918-1920. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

208. VASE 

Ht. 14y 2 inches. Blown, lily form with tooled lip, 
circular foot. 
Circa 1918-1920. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 
POMONA 

209. PITCHER 

Ht. 2% inches. Blown and pattern molded, acid 
etched except for tooled rim and applied handle, 
incised primrose and leaf band. 
Circa 1885-1888. 

Published: Fairfield, W. E., Fire and Sand, Cleve- 
land, 1960. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.206). 

210. BOWL 

Ht. 4 inches. Diam. 5Vi inches. Blown and pattern 
molded, acid etched except for tooled rim and ap- 
plied feet, incised primrose and leaf band. 
Circa 1885-1888. 

Published: Antiques, March 1959, p. 295. 
Toledo Museum News, Summer 1961, vol. 4, No. 3, 
p. 70. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Marie 
W. Greenhalgh (58.68). 
WILD ROSE (Peachblow) 

211. VASE 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown, lily form with flared tooled 

lip. Glossy finish, painted in gold: World's Fair, 

1893. 

Circa 1888-1893. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 



67 



212. VASE 

Ht. 7-5/16 inches. Blown with pinched round base 
and tapered conical neck. Bears original New Eng- 
land Glass Company diamond-shaped label. 
Circa 1886-1888. 
This is a rare shape. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

213. PAIR OF VASES 

Ht. HVi inches. Blown, oval bodies with spool 
necks, matte finish. 
Circa 1886-1888. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Dorothy- 
Donovan Farrell (50.284, 50.285). 
AGATA 

214. PUNCH CUP 

Ht. 2% inches. Blown body with applied handle, 
glossy finish. 
Circa 1887-1888. 

Published: Barret, R. C, Identification of American 
Art Glass, 1964, pi. 7. 

Lent by the Bennington Museum, the Joseph W. 
and May K. Limric Collection (60.100). 
MAIZE 

215. VASE 

Ht. 6-7/16 inches. Pressed in mold, opaque white 
with painted green corn leaves. 

About 1889, W. L. Libbey and Son, Company. Tole- 
do, Ohio. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. 
E. M. Belknap (65.189). 
OTHER TYPES 

216. PLATE 

Diam. 7 inches. Pressed, opaque white with painted 

ship, "Santa Maria". 

About 1893. 

This was a souvenir item sold at the Libbey pavilion 

at the 1893 Columbian Exposition. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

217. SALT SHAKER 

L. 2% inches. Blown (?), opaque white in form of 

an egg with raised gold letters: Columbian 1893 

Exposition. 

About 1893. Rare. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

218. SHOE 

Ht. 2 J /2 inches. L. 5% inches. Pressed frosted 
glass with raised letters on heel: World's Fair 1893. 
About 1893. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

219. VASE 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown (?), opaque white, painted in 

gold with helmeted female figure and World's Fair, 

Chicago 1893. 

About 1893. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

220. HATCHET 

L. 8Vi inches. Pressed, amber. Profile bust of 
Washington inscribed in raised letters: Libbey Glass 
Co., Toledo, Ohio/ The Father of this Country/ 
World's Fair, 1893. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of James 
M. Falvey, Jr. (59.124). 



221. VASE 

Ht. 9 inches. Cameo cut, opaque white over ruby, 
orchid spray, white bands at foot and rim. 
Probably by Joseph Locke. About 1885. 
Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (51.203). 

222. BOWL 

Ht. 5 ! /2 inches. Diam. 11 inches. Blown, blue over 

opaque white with pink lining, ribbed, gold floral 

motifs. 

Circa 1880-1885. 

Probably an experimental piece and possibly unique. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

223. VASE 

Ht. 9% inches. Cameo cut, deep blue over etched 
clear, cut with pattern of trees and a house. 
Circa 1890-1895. 
Damaged near base. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 

224. KEY 

Length 8 inches. Pressed, clear. Scrolled top, in- 
scribed in raised letters: Toledo/Key to the City. 
1968. 

Lent by the Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Owens- 
Illinois, Inc. (1968). 



68 



Bibliography 



Barret, R. C, Identification of American Art Glass, Manchester, Vermont, 1964 
Bergstrom, E. H., Old Glass Paperweights, New York, 1948 
Darr, P. T., A Guide to Art and Pattern Glass, Springfield, Mass., 1960 
Libbey Glass Company, Amberina, Toledo, Ohio, n.d. 

Libbey Glass Company, Modern American Glassware, Toledo, Ohio, catalogue, 1940 
Libbey Glass Company, Rich Cut Glassware, Toledo, Ohio, catalogues, 1892-1910 
Lee, R. W., Nineteenth Century Art Glass, New York, 1952 
McKearin, G. S., American Glass, New York, 1948 

McKearin, H., Two Hundred Years of American Blown Glass, Garden City, New York, 1950 
McManus, T. F., A Century of Glass Manufacture, 1818-1918, Toledo, Ohio, 1918 
Melvin, J. S., American Glass Paperweights and their Makers, New York, 1967 
New England Glass Company, Catalogue of Blown and Rich Cut Glassware, Boston, 1884 
Pearson, J. M., American Cut Glass for the Discriminating Collector, New York, 1965 
Revi, A. C, American Cut and Engraved Glass, New York, 1965 

Revi, A. C, Nineteenth Century Glass, its Genesis and Development, New York, 1959 
Rogers, M. F., The New England Glass Company, 1818-1888, Toledo Museum of Art exhibition catalogue, 
1963 

Rose, J. H., The Story of American Glass of the Lacy Period, 1825-1850, Corning Museum of Glass, Corn- 
ing, N. Y. exhibition catalogue, 1954 

Silverman, A., "Joseph Locke, artist", The Glass Industry, August 1936, pp. 272-275, vol. 17 
Toledo Museum of Art, Art in Crystal, a Historical Exhibition of Libbey Glass, 1818-1951, Toledo, 1951 
Watkins, L. W., Cambridge Glass, 1818-1888, the Story the New England Glass Company, Boston, 1930 
Watkins, L. W., "Early Glass Pressing at Cambridge and Sandwich", Antiques, October 1935, part I, pp. 
151-152; December 1935, part II, pp. 242-243 

Watkins, L. W., "New England Glass Company", Early American Glass Club Bulletin, vol. 44, January 1958, 
pp. 5-7 



69